DPI logo: Ready

Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts

Please enable Javascript in your browser to use the view options.


Reading: Foundational Skills
standard Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5
Print Concepts
1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  1. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
  2. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
  3. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
  4. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Kindergarten students develop the understanding of a letter and word. They also focus on directionality of print (left to right and top to bottom).

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  1. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

First grade students understand sentence features.





Phonological Awareness
2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

  1. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
  2. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
  3. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
  4. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
  5. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Kindergarten students build phonological awareness through understanding of onset/rhyme, syllables, and phoneme segmentation.

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
  1. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
  2. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
  3. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
  4. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

First grade students focus on distinguishing long and short vowels, blending sounds, and segmenting individual phonemes by sequence within single-syllable words.





Phonics and Word Recognition
3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant.
  2. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
  3. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
  4. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

Kindergarten students build phonics and word recognition skills though letter knowledge, long and short vowels, high frequency words, and word comparisons.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
  2. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  3. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
  4. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
  5. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
  6. Read words with inflectional endings.
  7. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

First grade students continue to build on the same word features.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  2. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
  3. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
  4. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  5. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
  6. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Second grade students decode more complex grade-appropriate words (two syllables, prefixes/suffixes, inconsistent spellings, irregularly spelled words).

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
  2. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
  3. Decode multisyllable words.
  4. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Third grade students add derivational and Latin suffixes and multisyllable words to their phonics skills. Note: The derivational suffix learning involved in phonics and word recognition is based upon a link between the spelling of the words and their meanings, despite changes in sound (Ex: confide/confidence).

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fourth grade students read unknown multisyllable words both in and out of context.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fifth grade students continue to refine their skills to accurately read unknown multisyllable words in and out of context.

Fluency
4 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten students read with purpose and focus on making meaning.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

First grade students read grade-level texts aloud with an appropriate percentage of correct words (accuracy), are able to read the text in a manner that is not too fast or too slow (appropriate rate), and can use expression (noticing punctuation and phrasing). They also go back and reread when their oral reading does not sound or look like they think it should.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Second grade students continue to read aloud with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Third grade students add the ability to read poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Fourth grade students continue to read prose and poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Fifth grade students continue to read prose and poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.


Reading: Informational Text
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 Grades 11–12
Key Ideas and Details
1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Second grade students answer specific questions and demonstrate understanding.

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Third grade students add the ability to refer to the text explicitly to support their answers.

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fourth grade students continue to refer to the text explicitly and now do so when drawing inferences.

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to quote accurately from the text to support their answers. “Quote accurately” may include using their own words.

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Sixth grade students provide evidence in the form of citations when analyzing what a text says and drawing inferences. To “cite” can mean both 1) to refer to and specify, as for support, proof, illustration, or confirmation and also 2) to include a short note recognizing the source of evidence.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Seventh grade students cite more than one piece of textual evidence to support their ideas.

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

When citing evidence, eighth grade students judge what is considered strong (convincing and effective) support.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Students find evidence in the text that is strong (convincing) and thorough (complete, detailed) to support their analysis.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Along with being able to determine if evidence is sufficient and convincing, students need to be able to judge where an author purposely (or unintentionally) leaves information open-ended or vague.

2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students identify the main topic and retell key details in their own words.

Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

First grade students continue to identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

Second grade students identify the main topics of paragraphs and longer texts.

Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

Third grade students explain how key details support the main idea.

Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

Fourth grade students add the ability to summarize the text.

Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

Fifth grade students identify two or more main ideas of a text.

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Sixth grade students establish the central idea of a text. They understand how the idea is communicated through the use of details. Students should provide a summary that is free of any opinions or judgments.

Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

Seventh grade students find more than one central idea and analyze how they are developed over the course of a text.

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

Eighth grade students add the ability to evaluate how the central idea connects to supporting ideas.

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students understand how key details create and shape a theme or central idea.

Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students find more than one central idea in a text and explain how they are developed. They also understand the inter-relationship between multiple ideas and recognize how this relationship creates a richer understanding.

3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students tell how individuals, events, ideas or information are linked together.

Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

First grade students continue to describe connections.

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

Second grade students describe specific connections within texts (events, steps, procedures).

Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Third grade students use specific language when discussing connections within a text.

Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Fourth grade students use specific information in the text to describe what happened and why.

Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Fifth grade students use comparison to discuss information in a text.

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Sixth grade students provide detailed analysis of the ways the author develops and introduces textual elements, such as key individuals, events or ideas.

Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

Seventh grade students examine the interactions between textual elements.

Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Eighth grade students examine the relationships among and distinctions between textual elements.

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Students examine how an author builds an opinion or a study with key details, paying close attention to how the ideas are introduced, sequenced, and developed. Finding the connections between ideas should be reviewed.

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Students evaluate a set of ideas that are multifaceted or look at a sequence of events to determine how specific individuals, ideas, or events relate to one another and develop throughout the text.

Craft and Structure
4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions regarding new vocabulary.

Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

First grade students use questioning to clarify understanding of unknown words.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

Second grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

Third grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

Fourth grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

Fifth grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

Sixth grade students determine the meanings of figurative, connotative and technical words and phrases in a text.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Seventh grade students examine the effect of an author’s word choice on the text’s meaning and tone.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Eighth grade students examine how specific word choices, including analogies or allusions to other texts, impact a text’s meaning and tone.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

After determining the figurative, connotative, and technical meanings of words and phrases, students realize the significance of the author’s word choice as a whole on the text’s tone or overall understanding.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).

Students examine an author’s craft as it relates to word choice, specifically considering how an author perfects or cultivates the meaning of a key term(s).

5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

Kindergarten students identify specific book and print concepts.

Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.

First grade students know and use basic text features and locate key facts.

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

Second grade students use more specific text features and can locate key facts efficiently.

Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

Third grade students use search tools and determine the relevancy of information.

Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

Fourth grade students describe the overall structure of a portion of a text or the entire text.

Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.

Fifth grade students compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts.

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

Sixth grade students analyze how specific text structures contribute to the development of ideas.

Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

Seventh grade students analyze an author’s use of specific structures to organize the text and include how the main textual structures add to the text as a whole.

Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.

Eighth grade students examine the structure of a specific paragraph and analyze how the paragraph’s key concept is developed.

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

When examining the development of an author’s ideas, students should pay attention to how specific parts of the text enhance a thought or expand an idea.

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

Students examine the structure an author uses and judges whether or not it is effective for the purpose. Is it clear? Does the author convince you as a reader? How did the structure contribute to this?

6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

Kindergarten students name the author and illustrator in a text. They explain the part each plays in presenting the information.

Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

First grade students distinguish between information in the words and pictures in a text.

Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Second grade students identify the main purpose of a text and the author’s intent.

Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Third grade students develop their own point of view separate from that of the author’s.

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Fourth grade students compare and contrast accounts of the same event paying attention to differences in focus.

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Fifth grade students analyze multiple accounts of the same event and compare points of view.

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

Sixth grade students explain how an author’s point of view or purpose is communicated in a text.

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

Seventh grade students examine how an author discerns his/her point of view or purpose from that of others.

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Eighth grade students examine an author’s method for recognizing and responding to conflicting evidence and viewpoints.

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

After establishing what an author’s purpose or point of view is in a text, students examine how the language is used effectively and consider any persuasive techniques the author might use to influence readers.

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

Using a text that is rich with effective language, students should establish what the author’s purpose is, and study how style contributes to the power and beauty of the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).

With assistance, kindergarten students describe how illustrations support a text.

Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

First grade students use illustrations and details to explain key ideas in a text.

Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

Second grade students explain how specific images add to the meaning of a text.

Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

Third grade students use both illustrations and words to demonstrate understanding of a text.

Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

Fourth grade students add the ability to interpret information orally or quantitatively.

Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

Fifth grade students draw on multiple types of information as they answer questions and solve problems quickly and efficiently.

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

Sixth grade students integrate information presented through different media to develop a coherent understanding of a topic.

Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).

Seventh grade students compare and contrast different media versions of the text and analyze how the medium effects the portrayal of the subject matter.

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.

Eighth grade students judge the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present specific topics.

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

When examining several texts that share the same subject but use different vehicles or modes to communicate, students should be able to judge what details are emphasized in each account.

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

Students appraise and incorporate multiple sources of information including graphs, texts, illustrations, charts, and other forms of information in order to address a question or solve a problem.

8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students identify an author’s basic reasoning within a text.

Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

First grade students continue to identify the author’s reasoning.

Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

Second grade students describe the ways reasons support specific points made by the author in the text.

Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).

Third grade students describe logical connections between parts of a text.

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

Fourth grade students explain how an author uses evidence to support his/her points.

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

Fifth grade students match reasons and evidence with particular points made by the author of a text.

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Sixth grade students trace and evaluate arguments within text as they distinguish between claims that are valid and invalid.

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.

Seventh grade students expand this assessment of claims to determine whether or not sound reasoning is used to support claims and whether evidence is relevant and sufficient.

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Eighth grade students add the ability to recognize when irrelevant evidence is used.

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

Students evaluate whether the reasoning an author presents is logical/ legitimate and the evidence that is used is relevant to the argument and provides enough proof. They need to pinpoint any statements that are false and judge if any of the author’s reasoning is misleading.

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).

Students describe and examine the thought processes in influential U.S. texts and apply the constitutional principles (checks and balances, limited government, separation of powers…), and use legal reasoning.

(1) Issue: What specifically is being debated?
(2) Rule: What legal rule governs this issue?
(3) Facts: What are the facts relevant to this rule?
(4) Analysis: Apply the rule to the facts.
(5) Conclusion: Having applied the rule to the facts, what is the outcome?

Students determine the bases, purposes, or foundations found in works of advocacy. (Advocacy is the act of influencing decision makers and promoting changes to laws and other government policies to advance the mission of a particular organization or group of people.)

9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. With prompting and supportv, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

With assistance, kindergarten students identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.

Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

First grade students continue to identify similarities and differences between texts.

Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Second grade students compare and contrast key points of two texts.

Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Third grade students compare and contrast key details.

Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Fourth grade students integrate information and can write or speak about a subject knowledgeably.

Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Fifth grade students add the ability to integrate information from several texts.

Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).

Sixth grade students compare and contrast two different authors’ presentations of the same event.

Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

Seventh grade students analyze how two or more authors develop presentations differently through the evidence they choose to emphasize and how they interpret facts.

Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

Eighth grade students examine texts on the same topic that have conflicting information. They identify where facts or interpretations disagree.

Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Students evaluate influential U.S. documents, especially how they deal with similar themes and concepts.

Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

Students examine and evaluate significant foundational U.S. documents from the seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century to consider their themes, purposes, and language features.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten students actively engage in group reading.

With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1.

With assistance, students read informational text appropriately complex for grade 1.

By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, second grade students read proficiently various types of informational text for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Third grade students read independently and proficiently various types of informational text for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, fourth grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Fifth grade students read independently and proficiently various types informational text for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, sixth grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, seventh grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Eighth grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction independently at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Support might be needed at the high end of the grade band.

By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Students continue to read and comprehend grade 11-CCR literary nonfiction.

Reading: Literature
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 Grades 11–12
Key Ideas and Details
1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Second grade students answer specific questions to demonstrate understanding.

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Third grade students add the ability to refer to the text explicitly to support their answers.

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fourth grade students continue to refer to text explicitly and now do so when drawing inferences.

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to quote accurately from the text to support their answers. “Quote accurately” may include using their own words.

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Sixth grade students provide evidence in the form of citations when analyzing what a text says and drawing inferences. To “cite” can mean both 1) to refer to and specify, as for support, proof, illustration, or confirmation and also 2) to include a short note recognizing the source of evidence.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Seventh grade students cite more than one piece of textual evidence when analyzing a text.

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

When citing evidence, eighth grade students judge what is considered strong (convincing and effective) support.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Students provide evidence in the text that is strong and thorough (complete, detailed) to support their analysis.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Students judge where an author purposely leaves events open-ended or vague or identifies where a text is inconclusive.

2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

With assistance, kindergarten students retell a story in their own words and remember key details.

Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

First grade students also demonstrate an understanding of the central message or lesson.

Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

Second grade students continue to retell stories and include fables and folktales from diverse cultures.

Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

Third grade students explain how key details communicate the message and myths are included.

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

Fourth grade students determine the central message as a “theme” and are able to determine the theme in stories, dramas, or poems.

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to determine how characters respond to challenges or topics in multiple genres.

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Sixth grade students determine a text’s central idea (the controlling idea that is specific to that text) and how it is expressed through specific details. Students should create a summary that is free of any opinions or judgments.

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

Seventh grade students add the ability to analyze the theme or central idea as it develops over the course of a text.

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

Eighth grade students expand the analysis of the text’s theme to include its relationship to story elements.

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students understand how key details can create and shape a theme or central idea.

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students find more than one theme or central idea in a text. They understand the inter-relationship between multiple themes and recognize how this creates a richer understanding.

3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

With assistance, kindergarten students need to recognize and name elements in a story.

Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

First grade students use details to tell about elements in a story.

Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Second grade students build on understanding character development focusing on characters’ reactions to what is taking place in a story.

Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

Third grade students are more specific in telling about characters. They must explain how the actions of the characters influence plot development.

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

Fourth grade students refer to details in the text to describe various story elements in depth.

Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

Fifth grade students refer to specific details in the text when finding the similarities and differences between two or more characters, settings or events.

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

Sixth grade students describe characters’ responses and changes as the plot develops and can explain the story or drama in sequential order.

Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

Seventh grade students examine the text to understand how elements of a story or drama work together.

Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Eighth grade students examine how specific lines of dialogue or events in a story or drama drive the action, disclose something about a character, or cause a decision to be made.

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

Students understand the role of complex characters in a text. They recognize the development of complex characters over the course of a text, explain their interactions with other characters, and tell how they contribute to plot or theme development.

Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

Students recognize how an author’s choices, when developing a story, impact the story as a whole.

Craft and Structure
4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

Kindergarten students answer as well as ask questions regarding new vocabulary.

Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

First grade students begin to name words and phrases that help contribute to the overall feeling of stories and poems.

Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

Second grade students tell how words and phrases provide meaning to a story, poem, or song.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

Third grade students tell the meaning of words and phrases in a text, noting the differences between literal and nonliteral language.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

Fourth grade students expand their ability to determine meaning of words and phrases to those that allude to significant mythological characters.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

Fifth grade students add the ability to determine the meaning of figurative language (metaphors and similes).

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Sixth grade students analyze the impact of word choice on meaning and tone in texts and add the ability to determine the connotative meanings of words and phrases.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.

Seventh grade students evaluate the influences of rhymes and other repetitive sounds on specific structures of a poem, story, or drama.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Eighth grade students add the ability to analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone by including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

After determining the figurative and connotative meanings of words, students realize the significance of the author’s word choice as a whole on the text’s tone and overall understanding.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)

Students examine an author’s craft as it relates to word choice, specifically considering multiple meanings of words and use language that is descriptive, creative, or original.

5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).

Kindergarten students recognize stories, poems, and various forms of texts.

Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

First grade students explain how books that tell stories are different from books that provide information (literary and informational text).

Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

Second grade students explain how a story is structured — beginning and end.

Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

Third grade students look at text structure when writing and speaking about a text and focus on various parts and tell how they build upon one another.

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

Fourth grade students continue to develop an understanding of text structure. They know the differences between various genres.

Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

Fifth grade students explain how the parts of a particular genre fit together.

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

Sixth grade students examine specific text structures and how they add to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.

Seventh grade students examine how the form of a poem or drama plays a role in determining its meaning.

Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

Eighth grade students find structural similarities and differences of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structures produce a particular style.

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

Students consider how an author crafts the structure of a text to produce a particular effect.

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

Students examine specific parts of a text to understand how an author structured and crafted that particular part, so that it would contribute meaning or artistic effect.

6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

With assistance, kindergarten students name the author and illustrator in a story. They will understand the part each plays in telling a story. (The job of the author…. The job of the illustrator).

Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

First grade students name who is telling the story throughout the text.

Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Second grade students describe how characters’ points of view differ. As students read orally, they should read using different voices for different characters.

Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

Third grade students establish the point of view and tell how their own point of view is different from the narrator’s or the characters’.

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Fourth grade students compare and contrast points of view.

Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

Fifth grade students explain how the narrator’s point of view affects how events are described.

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Sixth grade students clarify how the author develops the point of view in a text.

Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

Seventh grade students contrast the different points of view in a text (narrator and/or characters).

Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

Eighth grade students examine how different points of view in a text (character, audience, reader) produce particular effects.

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

Students examine a particular point of view or cultural experience found in a work of world literature.

Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

When determining point of view, students recognize when an author says one thing but means another.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

With assistance, kindergarten students understand how pictures support a story.

Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

First grade students use pictures and details in a story to tell about story elements.

Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

Second grade students add the use of digital text to demonstrate understanding.

Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

Third grade students explain more specifically how illustrations contribute to the text.

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

Fourth grade students make connections between the visual and oral versions of texts.

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).

Fifth grade students analyze how visual and multimedia elements affect the text.

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.

Sixth grade students compare and contrast the experiences of reading a text to viewing or listening to the same text.

Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).

Seventh grade students analyze the effects of various media techniques when used to present a text.

Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

Eighth grade students critique how close a production aligns to the original text or script. They should examine and assess the artistic decisions that were made.

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

Students compare two works that use different artistic mediums (painting, poetry, sculpture) but share a common subject.

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

Students examine many interpretations of a single work and determine how each venue interprets that text.

8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (not applicable to literature)
(not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature) (not applicable to literature)
9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

With assistance, kindergarten students compare and contrast characters’ experiences within stories that they know.

Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

First grade students compare and contrast elements of stories that are new to them.

Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same storyv (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

Second grade students compare and contrast versions of the same story. The authors of the same story could be different or the story could be from two different cultures.

Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series

Third grade students are more specific when comparing and contrasting. The author should be the same as well as the characters.

Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events(e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Fourth grade students find patterns of events in stories and myths.

Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Fifth grade students compare and contrast stories in the same genre.

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Sixth grade students assess different forms of texts to discover how the authors dealt with similar themes and topics.

Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

Seventh grade students explore a fictional historical text to a similar factual historical text to discover how the authors used or altered history in their works.

Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.

Eighth grade students consider how modern authors use similar elements found in traditional texts when developing their works.

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

Students analyze how an author uses source material in crafting a text. Students discover the source the author alludes to and explains how that text was changed by the author.

Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

This standard specifies the literature that should be studied at this level and includes requiring students to examine how authors from the same time period deal with a particular theme.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Actively engaged students are responsible for their own learning.

With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

With assistance, students read prose and poetry at the text complexity for grade 1. Prose is writing that is not poetry.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, second grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Third grade students read independently and proficiently various types of literature (including dramas) for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, fourth grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Fifth grade students read independently and proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, sixth grade students read and comprehend various types of literature in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

With assistance as needed, seventh grade students read and comprehend various types of literature in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Eighth grade students read and comprehend various types of literature independently and proficiently at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Support might be needed at the high end of the grade band.

By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Students continue to read and comprehend grade 11-CCR literature.

Writing
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 Grades 11–12
Text Types and Purposes
1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).

Kindergarten students’ opinion writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to make a claim.

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

First grade students write an opinion and give reasons for their thinking. They also provide a framework for their writing that includes an introduction and a sense of closure.

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

Second grade students provide more than one reason for their opinion and use linking words in their writing. They add a concluding statement or section.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
  1. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
  2. Provide reasons thaat support the opinion.
  3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section.

Third grade students write opinion pieces that support a point of view or make a claim. They also organize their writing to support a claim with reasons and connect ideas using linking phrases.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  2. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  3. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

Fourth grade students add information (facts and details) to their opinion pieces to support a claim. They group like ideas together to develop an organizational framework for their writing.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  2. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  3. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

Fifth grade students become more sophisticated at building an organizational framework for their writing by developing a logical, ordered progression of reasons in their writing. They connect ideas using linking clauses.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  2. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

Sixth grade students use relevant evidence and clear reasons to support claims when they write arguments. They are expected to use credible sources, demonstrate an understanding of the topic, and show the ability to clarify the relationships among claims. Students need to establish and maintain a formal style of writing throughout their argument.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Seventh grade students support claims by using accurate sources and add credibility to their logical arguments by introducing alternate claims. They use words, phrases, and clauses to generate consistency among claims.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Eighth grade students add the ability to distinguish their claims from opposing or alternate claims.

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Students write arguments that support an analysis of an important topic or text. Students use reasoning that not only is relevant but also logical and well-founded. They provide enough evidence to adequately support their claims. Students introduce a clear claim; show the relationships between claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; and show equitable treatment of claims and counterclaims. They use language to link sections of the text together, use an impartial tone, and align writing conventions specific to the discipline.

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Students establish both knowledge and importance of the claim using the most pertinent evidence while being cognizant of the audience’s values and possible biases. Students use varied language structure to tie the sections of the text together.

2 Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/ explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

Kindergarten students’ informative/explanatory writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to compose texts. They name a topic and can give some information about it.

Write informative/ explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

First grade students write informative/explanatory texts and add a sense of closure to their writing.

Write informative/ explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

Second grade students provide an introduction and a concluding statement or section. They also use facts and definitions to develop points in their writing.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
  3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section.

Third grade students examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly using facts, definitions, and details. They know to supply illustrations as necessary. They also use linking words and phrases to group like ideas together.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, vquotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  3. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

Fourth grade students present ideas clearly using concrete details, quotations, examples, and precise vocabulary. They use formatting (paragraphs, sections, text features). They know to supply multimedia as necessary. They also develop a conclusion that is related to the information presented.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  3. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

Fifth grade students make an observation, focus their writing, and present ideas in a logical manner. They link ideas across categories using clauses.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  3. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

Sixth grade students organize, select and analyze relevant content in order to write informative/explanatory texts. They use a variety of strategies to organize their ideas and include graphics to aid in comprehension. They write in a formal style using appropriate transitions and relevant facts.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  3. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

Seventh grade students expand their organizational strategies to include clear topic introductions and previewing information. They also use transitions to create consistency among ideas.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  3. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

Eighth grade students organize information into broader categories, choose their facts carefully, and use a variety of transitions to create cohesion and clarity.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  3. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

Students write informative /explanatory papers that articulate complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately. Students organize information to make important connections and distinctions, use sufficient facts and extended definitions to develop a topic, and link major sections of a text with varied transitions. They use precise and discipline specific vocabulary, and maintain style and tone aligned to the conventions of the discipline.

Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  3. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

Students organize information so that each new element builds on each other to create a unified whole. Students select the most significant facts to include in a thoroughly developed topic, use syntax to link sections of text, and include figurative language.

3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

Kindergarten students’ narrative writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to represent a single event or several loosely linked events. They also provide a reaction to what happened.

Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

First grade students recount two or more sequenced events and include some details about what happened. They use temporal words and provide a sense of closure.

Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Second grade students recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events and include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  2. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
  3. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
  4. Provide a sense of closure.

Third grade students write real or imagined events in an organized way (unfolding naturally) using effective descriptive details and clear event sequences. They introduce characters and/or use narration. They also use dialogue to develop the events or characters.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  2. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  3. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
  4. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Fourth grade students orient the reader to their writing. They use a variety of transitional words, concrete words and phrases, and sensory details. They write a conclusion that connects to the narrated experiences or events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  3. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
  4. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Fifth grade students use pacing to develop experiences and events in their writing. They also use clauses to manage the sequence of events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  4. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Sixth grade students write narratives that engage the reader by developing a context in which events will unfold logically throughout the text. When developing story elements, they use pacing and description as well as precise words and details.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  4. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Seventh grade students use sensory language that captures the action. They also develop conclusions that reflect the narrated events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
  4. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Eighth grade students add the ability to use reflection as a narrative technique and show the relationship among experiences and events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  4. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Students write narratives with carefully selected details that engage the reader by including a problem, situation, or observation and one or more points of view. Students use techniques such as the use of multiple plot lines, variety in sequencing events, and selecting words that create a vivid picture of the setting and characters. They provide a conclusion that considers what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the story.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
  4. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Students use a variety of techniques to create a particular tone and outcome. They craft the significance of a problem, observation, or situation.

Production and Distribution of Writing
4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
(begins in grade 3)
(begins in grade 3)
(begins in grade 3)
With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

With assistance, third grade students produce writing appropriate to task and purpose.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Fourth grade students produce clear and coherent writing that is also appropriate to audience.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Fifth grade students continue to produce clear and coherent writing appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Sixth grade students develop a sense of style in their writing that is appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Seventh grade students continue to produce writing appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Eighth grade students continue to produce writing appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

With assistance from adults, kindergarten students use peer feedback to strengthen their writing.

With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

With assistance from adults, first grade students focus on a topic when they write.

With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

With assistance from adults and peers, second grade students strengthen their writing by revising and editing.

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

With assistance, third grade students develop their writing by planning.

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

With assistance, fourth grade students continue to strengthen their writing by planning, revising, and editing.

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

With assistance, fifth grade students strengthen their writing by rewriting or trying a new approach.

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

With some assistance, sixth grade students continue to develop their writing using the writing process.

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

With some assistance, seventh grade students continue to develop their writing using the writing process and focus on addressing purpose and audience.

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

With assistance, kindergarten students explore digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

With assistance, first grade students use digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

With assistance, second grade students continue to use digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others

With assistance, third grade students use technology (keyboarding skills) to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

Fourth grade students need less assistance from adults as they use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and interact and collaborate with others. Fourth grade students should show a command of keyboarding skills by typing a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Fifth grade students should show a command of keyboarding skills by typing a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

Sixth grade students produce and publish writing using technology and in collaboration with others. They type at least three pages in a single sitting.

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

Seventh grade students add the ability to link and cite sources within their publications.

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Eighth grade students include the relationships between ideas and information in their publications.

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Students use technology as a tool to edit individual and shared writing products, and use it to link to additional information or to display writing.

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Students use technology to respond to feedback, including new arguments or information.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).

Kindergarten students participate in shared research and writing projects.

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).

First grade students continue to participate in shared research and writing projects.

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

Second grade students continue to participate in shared research and writing projects.

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

Third grade students conduct and write their own short research projects.

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Fourth grade students investigate different aspects of a topic when conducting research.

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Fifth grade students use several sources when conducting research.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

Sixth grade students answer a question by conducting a short research project and know to refocus the inquiry when appropriate to do so. (Inquiry is seeking for truth, information, or knowledge through questioning.)

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

Seventh grade students generate additional related and relevant questions to expand research and investigation of a topic.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Eighth grade students continue to expand research by asking focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Students demonstrate the ability to narrow or broaden their inquiry, synthesize information from multiple sources, and demonstrate understanding of the topic of study.

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

With assistance, kindergarten students recall or gather information to answer a question from provided sources.

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

With assistance, first grade students continue to recall or gather information to answer a question from provided sources.

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Second grade students continue to recall or gather information to answer a question from provided sources.

Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

Third grade students use print and digital sources, take notes, and sort evidence into provided categories.

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

Fourth grade students determine relevance of information and provide a list of resources.

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

Fifth grade students summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

Sixth grade students assess each source for its credibility, and they quote gathered data while avoiding plagiarism.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Seventh grade students assess the accuracy of each source and use search terms effectively. They also add the ability to use citations in a standard format.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Eighth grade students continue to assess sources, quote and paraphrase without plagiarizing, and follow a standard format for citation.

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Students collect multiple accurate and knowledgeable sources, assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question, and integrate information into the text strategically to maintain the flow of ideas.

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

Students determine the strengths and limitations of the sources they find in terms of task, purpose, and audience. They should not rely heavily on a single source.

9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(begins in grade 4)
(begins in grade 4) (begins in grade 4) (begins in grade 4) Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
  2. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

Fourth grade students respond to a literary text by drawing on specific details in the text to describe a character, setting, or event. They also respond to informational text by writing about the author’s reasoning to support points in the text.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
  2. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

Fifth grade students respond to literary text by comparing and contrasting story elements. They also respond to informational text by identifying which reasons and evidence support the author’s particular points.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
  2. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Students apply grade six reading standards to literature and literary nonfiction texts.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
  2. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Students apply grade seven reading standards to literature and literary nonfiction texts.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
  2. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Students apply grade eight reading standards to literature and literary nonfiction texts.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  2. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Students apply grades 9-10 reading standards to literature and literary nonfiction texts as they research to build and present knowledge.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
  2. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).

Students apply grades 11-12 reading standards to literature and literary nonfiction texts as they research to build and present knowledge.

Range of Writing
10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
(begins in grade 3)
(begins in grade 3) (begins in grade 3) Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Third grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Fourth grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Fifth grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Sixth grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Seventh grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Eighth grade students write daily for short-term and long-term purposes, throughout various domains and for different audiences.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
x
Language
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 Grades 11–12
Conventions of Standard English
1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
  2. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
  3. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
  4. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
  5. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
  6. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

Kindergarten students can use and expand complete sentences, print many (upper-and lowercase) letters, use nouns and verbs, use question words, and use prepositions.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
  2. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
  3. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
  4. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
  5. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
  6. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  7. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
  8. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
  9. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  10. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

First grade students can use and expand a variety of sentences, print all letters, and use singular and plural nouns with verbs (past, present, and future). They also use adjectives, conjunctions, determiners (articles), and prepositions.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
  2. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
  3. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
  4. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
  5. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  6. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).

Second grade students can use, expand, and rearrange a variety of sentences. They use collective and irregular nouns, reflexive pronouns, irregular verbs, and adverbs.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
  2. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
  3. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
  4. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
  5. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
  6. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.*
  7. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  8. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
  9. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.

Third grade students can produce complex sentences. They can explain the function of various parts of speech. They use abstract nouns, simple verb tenses, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, coordinating conjunctions, and can ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
  2. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  3. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
  4. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  5. Form and use prepositional phrases.
  6. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  7. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).

Fourth grade students distinguish between confusing words, use relative pronouns and adverbs, and can use progressive tense. They also use modal auxiliaries, know how to order adjectives, and recognize sentence fragments and run-ons.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  2. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
  3. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  4. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  5. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).

Fifth grade students explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions and interjections. They also know how to use perfect tense and can recognize incorrect verb tense. They use correlative conjunctions.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
  2. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
  3. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.*
  4. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  5. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

Sixth grade students focus mainly on the proper use of various pronouns. They recognize variations in standard English and use strategies to improve conventional language.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
  2. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
  3. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.

Seventh grade students focus mainly on the structure of sentences.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
  2. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
  3. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
  4. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.

Eighth grade students focus mainly on the functions of verbs.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Use parallel structure.
  2. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

Students use parallel structure that will likely require continued attention in grades 11-12 as they are applied with increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking. Students also use various types of phrases to convey meaning, add variety and interest in both writing and speaking.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  1. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
  2. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.

Students understand that standard language conventions change over time, and they should reference reliable sources as needed for clarification.

2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
  2. Recognize and name end punctuation.
  3. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
  4. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

Kindergarten students demonstrate sentence concepts (capital and punctuation). They write more consonant letters and spell simple words.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Capitalize dates and names of people.
  2. Use end punctuation for sentences.
  3. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
  4. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
  5. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

First grade students demonstrate command of capitalization, comma use, end punctuation, and can spell known and unknown phonetic words.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
  2. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
  3. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
  4. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
  5. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Second grade students demonstrate command of apostrophe, contractions, and possessives. They know spelling patterns and can use reference materials.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
  2. Use commas in addresses.
  3. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
  4. Form and use possessives.
  5. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
  6. Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
  7. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Third grade students can use quotation marks. They know how to add suffixes and use spelling generalizations and patterns.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use correct capitalization.
  2. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  3. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
  4. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Fourth grade students can mark direct speech from a text and spell grade-appropriate words correctly consulting references as needed.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
  2. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
  3. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
  4. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
  5. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Fifth grade students use underlining and italics to indicate titles of works and are expanding their use of commas.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  2. Spell correctly.

Sixth grade students use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
  2. Spell correctly.

Seventh grade students use a comma to separate coordinating adjectives.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
  2. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
  3. Spell correctly.

Eighth grade students use punctuation to indicate a pause or break. They use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  2. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  3. Spell correctly.

Students use a semicolon to connect two or more related independent clauses and use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  1. Observe hyphenation conventions.
  2. Spell correctly.

Students use hyphens correctly.

Knowledge of Language
3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (begins in grade 2)
(begins in grade 2)
Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Second grade students compare formal and informal language forms.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Choose words and phrases for effect.
  2. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.

Third grade students choose words for effect and compare written and spoken Standard English.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
  2. Choose punctuation for effect.
  3. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Fourth grade students choose words to convey ideas precisely and choose punctuation for effect. They also distinguish between situations and contents that call for formal English or informal discourse.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  2. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.

Fifth grade students change sentences to convey meaning, interest, and style. They also compare and contrast varieties of English.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  2. Maintain consistency in style and tone.

Sixth grade students use varying sentence patterns as they maintain consistency in style and tone.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.

Sixth grade students use varying sentence patterns as they maintain consistency in style and tone.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  1. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).

Eighth grade students use verbs in the active and passive voice when establishing moods to achieve particular effects.

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
  1. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Students understand how language functions in different contexts and how to make choices that impact meaning and style. They comprehend when reading or listening using their knowledge of language. Students use citation guidelines appropriate to the discipline and type of writing.

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
  1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

Students vary use of language to create style and add effect, consult references for models as needed, and apply understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
  1. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
  2. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.

Kindergarten students explore words with multiple meanings and can use inflections and affixes.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  3. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).

First grade students explore sentence-level context and identify root words and their inflectional forms.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
  4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
  5. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

Second grade students explore vocabulary by using known word parts (prefix, root, or compound part) to acquire unknown words and develop print and digital reference use.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable /uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
  4. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

Third grade students explore vocabulary by using known word parts (affix, root) to acquire unknown words.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
  3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

Fourth grade students use context as a clue to the meaning of unknown words, use Greek and Latin affixes and roots, and develop print and digital reference use to find the punctuation.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
  3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

Fifth grade students continue to explore the meaning of unknown words in multiple ways.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
  3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

For vocabulary acquisition standards, sixth grade students continue to explore the meaning of unknown words based on grade 6 reading and content. They consult reference materials to determine the part of speech and verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
  3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

For vocabulary acquisition standards, seventh grade students continue to explore the meaning of unknown words based on grade 7 reading and content. They consult general and specialized reference materials for word study.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
  3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

For vocabulary acquisition standards, eighth grade students continue to explore the meaning of unknown words based on grade 8 reading and content and choose from a range of strategies.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
  3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, it’s part of speech, or its etymology.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

Students continue to explore the meaning of unknown words based on grades 9-10 reading and content, and they choose from a wide range of strategies. They use patterns of word changes correctly to indicate different meanings and parts of speech.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
  3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

Students consult general and specialized reference materials to determine a word’s standard usage.

5 Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
  3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
  4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.

With assistance, kindergarten students explore word relationships. They explore different shades of the same verb, inflections, common concepts/objects, opposites, and how words are used in “real-life.”

With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  2. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
  3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

With assistance, first grade students demonstrate understanding of figurative language. They sort and define words by category, and they distinguish shades of the same verb and adjectives by defining or acting them out.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
  2. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

Without assistance, second grade students distinguish different shades of the same verb, related verbs, and closely related adjectives.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
  2. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
  3. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered).

Third grade students distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings for words and phrases in context, and they also distinguish words that describe states of mind.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  3. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

Fourth grade students explain the meaning of simple similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, and proverbs. They also demonstrate understanding of relationships between words (synonyms and antonyms).

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  3. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.

Fifth grade students interpret figurative language and use the relationship between words to better understand each of the words.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  2. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  3. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).

Sixth grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by interpreting figures of speech and distinguishing among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
  1. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym /antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
  2. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).

Seventh grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by continuing to interpret figures of speech, using the relationships between words, and distinguishing among words with similar denotations.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
  2. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
  3. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

Eighth grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by continuing to interpret figures of speech, using the relationships between words, and distinguishing among words with similar denotations.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

Students analyze the role(s) of figures of speech in a text and nuances in the meaning of words with similar meanings.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

Students continue to analyze the role(s) of figures of speech in a text and nuances in the meaning of words with similar meanings.

6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

Kindergarten students use words and phrases acquired to respond to texts.

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

First grade students include conjunctions in their responses.

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

Second grade students include adjectives and adverbs in their responses.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

Third grade students respond with general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Fourths grade students respond with language that includes precise actions, emotions, or states of being.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

Fifth grade students’ responses include language that signals contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Sixth grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 6 vocabulary.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Seventh grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 7 vocabulary.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Eighth grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 8 vocabulary.

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Students acquire and use academic and domain-specific words sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening appropriate to college and career level reading. Students demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary.

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Speaking & Listening
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 Grades 11–12
Comprehension and Collaboration
1
Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
  2. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges

Kindergarten students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by following rules through multiple exchanges.

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  2. Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
  3. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.

First grade students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts and add the ability to build on others’ talk and ask questions to clarify confusion.

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  2. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
  3. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

Second grade students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts and can link their comments to the remarks of others. They also ask for clarification and further explanation when needed.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  3. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
  4. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

Third grade students effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also ask questions to check understanding and stay on topic and are able to explain their thinking to others based upon the discussion.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  3. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
  4. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

Fourth grade students continue to effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also respond to questions to clarify and contribute to the conversation and can review the key ideas discussed.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  3. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
  4. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

Fifth grade students continue to effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also elaborate on other’s remarks and draw conclusions about the information discussed.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  3. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
  4. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

Sixth grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 6 topics. They refer to evidence under discussion; follow rules, set specific goals, and define roles; and understand multiple perspectives.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  3. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
  4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.

Seventh grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 7 topics. They follow their progression toward meeting goals and deadlines. They ask questions that warrant elaboration and refocus the topic of discussion and use new information to modify their own views.

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  2. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  3. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
  4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.

Eighth grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 8 topics. They follow rules for decision-making and ask questions in order to connect to the ideas of others. They qualify or justify their own views through presented evidence.

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  2. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

Students start and participate in collaborative discussions around grades 9-10 texts and topics. During conversations, students express their ideas persuasively. They reference evidence from multiple texts and research to contribute to a collaborative conversation where critical ideas are exchanged. Students establish their own rules to guide discussion and stimulate conversation using questioning skills to help uncover the big ideas. They respond thoughtfully to diverse viewpoints and come to new understandings based on the evidence presented.

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  2. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
  3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

Students engage in civil democratic discussions to ensure a wide range of perspectives on a topic of study are shared. They seek to clarify, verify, and challenge ideas to foster different and innovative perspectives. Students synthesize information presented on all sides of an issue and determine what additional evidence is required to deepen understanding or complete the task assigned.

2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

Kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details to confirm understanding of text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

Second grade students describe key details.

Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Third grade students determine the main ideas and supporting details of information presented in diverse formats.

Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Fourth grade students add the ability to paraphrase portions of a text presented in diverse formats.

Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Fifth grade students summarize a text presented in diverse formats.

Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

Sixth grade students interpret information presented in diverse media formats and explain how the media contributes to the information presented.

Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

Seventh grade students examine main ideas and supporting details presented in various formats and explain how the ideas are used to clarify the information presented.

Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.

Eighth grade students examine the purpose of presented information and the motives of the author.

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

Students integrate information from multiple sources and evaluate whether the source is believable and accurate.

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

Students make informed decisions and solve problems based on information collected, noting any variations in the data.

3
Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

Kindergarten students ask and answer questions when something is not understood.

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

First grade students ask and answer questions about what a speaker says when something is not understood.

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

Second grade students use questioning about what a speaker says to clarify comprehension and deepen understanding about a topic or issue.

Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

Third grade students add the ability to elaborate and offer details when asking and answering questions.

Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.

Fourth grade students identify a speaker’s reasons and evidence used to support specific points.

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Fifth grade students summarize the points a speaker makes and explain the ways a speaker supports claims with evidence.

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Sixth grade students establish claims that are supported through reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

Seventh grade students evaluate the accuracy of reasoning and the relevancy and adequacy of the evidence presented to support claims.

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Eighth grade students add the ability to identify when irrelevant evidence is used.

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Students evaluate a speaker’s point of view based on evidence and use of rhetoric. They identify statements that are false, exaggerated, or misleading.

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

Students assess author’s stance, premises, links between ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

Kindergarten students describe familiar concepts and stories and can add details with assistance.

Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

First grade students add relevant details and express ideas and feelings clearly.

Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

Second grade students recount an experience with relevant facts and speak audibly in coherent sentences.

Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

Third grade students add the ability to report on a topic and can speak at an understandable pace.

Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Fourth grade students present their story or experience in an organized manner when they speak and connect main ideas or themes to details.

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Fifth grade students continue to report on a topic or text and add the abilities to present an opinion and use ideas that are logically sequenced.

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

Sixth grade students present claims and finding and use relevant descriptions, facts, and details to highlight main ideas or themes. They use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation

Seventh grade students emphasize the prominent points in a coherent manner with pertinent examples when presenting claims and findings.

Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

Eighth grade students provide relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details when presenting claims and finding.

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

Students communicate information and supporting evidence so that an audience can follow the line of reasoning. Students ensure that the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to the purpose, audience, and task.

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

Students communicate a clear, unmistakable point of view and address alternative or opposing points of view.

5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

Kindergarten students add drawings or visual displays to presentations or descriptions.

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

First grades students continue to add drawings and visual displays and use them to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

Second grade students add the ability to create audio recording of stories or poems.

Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

Third grade students’ audio recordings are engaging and their recorded oral reading is fluid and at an understandable pace. They also use visual displays to emphasize certain facts or details.

Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

Fourth grade students add recordings and visual displays to presentations to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

Fifth grade students continue to enhance the development of main ideas or themes in presentations and include multimedia components.

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

Sixth grade students continue to include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.

Seventh grade students use multimedia components and visual displays to clarify claims, findings, and prominent points.

Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

Eighth grade students integrate multimedia and visual displays to strengthen claims and evidence and add interest to the presentation.

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

Students strategically and purposefully choose digital media platforms to enhance audience understanding of findings and reasoning.

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

6
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Kindergarten students express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly and audibly.

Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.

First grade students use complete sentences when appropriate.

Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Second grade students use complete sentences in order to provide detail or clarification when requested.

Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Third grade students continue to use complete sentences in order to provide detail or clarification.

Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

Fourth grade students distinguish between formal and informal English and know when the use of formal and informal English applies to specific tasks and situations.

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

Fifth grade students adapt speech to a variety of contexts and continue to distinguish when the use of formal English applies to specific task and situation.

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Sixth grade students continue to adapt speech to a variety of contexts and demonstrate command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Seventh grade students continue to adapt speech to a variety of contexts and demonstrate command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Eighth grade students continue to adapt speech to a variety of contexts and demonstrate command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.