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North Carolina Standard Course of Study: English Language Arts

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See the progression view for
the former Common Core State Standards.
Reading: Foundational Skills
standard Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5
Print Concepts
1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  1. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
  2. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
  3. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
  4. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Kindergarten students develop the understanding of a letter and word. They also focus on directionality of print (left to right and top to bottom).

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  1. Recognize and use capitalization and ending punctuation.

First grade students recognize and use proper capitalization and ending punctuation.





Handwriting
2 Print upper- and lowercase letters.

Kindergarten students print upper- and lowercase letters.

Print all upper- and lowercase letters legibly.

First grade students print letters legibly.

Print all upper- and lowercase letters legibly and proportionally.

Second grade students continue to print letters legibly; they print letters that are proportional to each other.

Create readable documents with legible handwriting (manuscript and cursive).

Third grade students use manuscript and cursive to create readable documents.

Create readable documents with legible handwriting (cursive).

Fourth grade students continue to use manuscript and cursive to create readable documents.

Create readable documents through legible handwriting (cursive).

Fifth grade students use cursive to create readable documents.

Phonological Awareness
3 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
  1. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
  2. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
  3. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
  4. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
  5. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Kindergarten students build phonological awareness through understanding of onset/rhyme, syllables, and phoneme segmentation.

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
  1. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
  2. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
  3. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
  4. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

First grade students focus on distinguishing long and short vowels, blending sounds, and segmenting individual phonemes by sequence within single-syllable words.





Phonics and Word Recognition
4 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
  2. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
  3. Read common high-frequency words by sight.
  4. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

Kindergarten students build phonics and word recognition skills though letter knowledge, long and short vowels, high frequency words, and word comparisons.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
  2. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  3. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
  4. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
  5. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
  6. Read words with inflectional endings.
  7. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

First grade students continue to build on the same word features.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  2. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
  3. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
  4. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  5. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
  6. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Second grade students decode more complex grade-appropriate words (two syllables, prefixes/suffixes, inconsistent spellings, irregularly spelled words).

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
  2. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
  3. Decode multisyllabic words.
  4. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Third grade students add derivational and Latin suffixes and multisyllable words to their phonics skills. Note: The derivational suffix learning involved in phonics and word recognition is based upon a link between the spelling of the words and their meanings, despite changes in sound (Ex: confide/confidence).

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fourth grade students use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology in order to decode unfamiliar words in a variety of contexts.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  1. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fifth grade students use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology in order to decode unfamiliar words in a variety of contexts.

Fluency
5 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten students read with purpose and focus on making meaning.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

First grade students read grade-level texts aloud with an appropriate percentage of correct words (accuracy), are able to read the text in a manner that is not too fast or too slow (appropriate rate), and can use expression (noticing punctuation and phrasing). They also go back and reread when their oral reading does not sound or look like they think it should.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Second grade students continue to read aloud with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Third grade students add the ability to read poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Fourth grade students continue to read prose and poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  1. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  2. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Fifth grade students continue to read prose and poetry orally with appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and self-correction using grade-level texts.


Reading: Informational Text
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12
Key Ideas and Details
1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Second grade students answer specific questions and demonstrate understanding.

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Third grade students add the ability to refer to the text explicitly to support their answers.

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fourth grade students continue to refer to the text explicitly and now do so when drawing inferences.

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to quote accurately from the text to support their answers. "Quote accurately" may include using their own words.

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Sixth grade students provide evidence in the form of citations when analyzing what a text says and drawing inferences. To “cite” can mean both 1) to refer to and specify, as for support, proof, illustration, or confirmation and also 2) to include a short note recognizing the source of evidence.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Seventh grade students cite more than one piece of textual evidence to support their ideas.

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

When citing evidence, eighth grade students judge what is considered strong (convincing and effective) support.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Students find evidence in the text that is strong (convincing) and thorough (complete, detailed) to support their analysis.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Along with being able to determine if evidence is sufficient and convincing, students need to be able to judge where an author purposely (or unintentionally) leaves information open-ended or vague.

2 Determine central ideas (RI) or themes (RL) of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students identify the main topic and retell key details in their own words.

Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

First grade students continue to identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

Second grade students identify the main topics of paragraphs and longer texts.

Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

Third grade students explain how key details support the main idea.

Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

Fourth grade students add the ability to summarize the text.

Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

Fifth grade students identify two or more main ideas of a text.

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Sixth grade students establish the central idea of a text. They understand how the idea is communicated through the use of details. Students should provide a summary that is free of any opinions or judgments.

Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

Seventh grade students find more than one central idea and analyze how they are developed over the course of a text.

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

Eighth grade students add the ability to evaluate how the central idea connects to supporting ideas.

Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students understand how key details create and shape a theme or central idea.

Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students find more than one central idea in a text and explain how they are developed. They also understand the inter-relationship between multiple ideas and recognize how this relationship creates a richer understanding.

3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students tell how individuals, events, ideas or information are linked together.

Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

First grade students continue to describe connections.

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

Second grade students describe specific connections within texts (events, steps, procedures).

Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Third grade students use specific language when discussing connections within a text.

Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Fourth grade students use specific information in the text to describe what happened and why.

Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Fifth grade students use comparison to discuss information in a text.

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text.

Sixth grade students provide detailed analysis of the ways the author develops and introduces textual elements, such as key individuals, events or ideas.

Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text.

Seventh grade students analyze the interactions between textual elements.

Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events.

Eighth grade students examine the relationships among and distinctions between textual elements.

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Students examine how an author builds an opinion or a study with key details, paying close attention to how the ideas are introduced, sequenced, and developed. Finding the connections between ideas should be reviewed.

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Students evaluate a set of ideas that are multifaceted or look at a sequence of events to determine how specific individuals, ideas, or events relate to one another and develop throughout the text.

Craft and Structure
4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about words in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions regarding new vocabulary.

Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

First grade students use questioning to clarify understanding of unknown words.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

Second grade students determine the meaning of words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

Third grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

Fourth grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

Fifth grade students determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in texts focused on grade-appropriate topics and subjects.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning.

Sixth grade students determine the meanings of figurative, connotative and technical words and phrases in a text.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Seventh grade students examine the effect of an author's word choice on the text's meaning and tone.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Eighth grade students examine how specific word choices, including analogies or allusions to other texts, impact a text's meaning and tone.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.

After determining the figurative, connotative, and technical meanings of words and phrases, students realize the significance of the author's word choice as a whole on the text's tone or overall understanding.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text.

Students examine an author's craft as it relates to word choice, specifically considering how an author perfects or cultivates the meaning of a key term(s).

5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

Kindergarten students identify specific book and print concepts.

Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text.

First grade students know and use basic text features and locate key facts.

Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

Second grade students use more specific text features and can locate key facts efficiently.

Use text features and search tools to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

Third grade students use search tools and determine the relevancy of information.

Describe the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

Fourth grade students describe the overall structure of a portion of a text or the entire text.

Compare and contrast the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.

Fifth grade students compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts.

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

Sixth grade students analyze how specific text structures contribute to the development of ideas.

Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

Seventh grade students analyze an author's use of specific structures to organize the text and include how the main textual structures add to the text as a whole.

Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.

Eighth grade students examine the structure of a specific paragraph and analyze how the paragraph's key concept is developed.

Analyze how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.

When examining the development of an author's ideas, students should pay attention to how specific parts of the text enhance a thought or expand an idea.

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

Students examine the structure an author uses and judges whether or not it is effective for the purpose. Is it clear? Does the author convince you as a reader? How did the structure contribute to this?

6 Assess how point of view, perspective, or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. With prompting and support, define the role of the author and illustrator in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

Kindergarten students name the author and illustrator in a text. They explain the part each plays in presenting the information.

Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

First grade students distinguish between information in the words and pictures in a text.

Identify the author's main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Second grade students identify the main purpose of a text and the author's intent.

Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Third grade students develop their own point of view separate from that of the author's.

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Fourth grade students compare and contrast accounts of the same event paying attention to differences in focus.

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Fifth grade students analyze multiple accounts of the same event and compare points of view.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

Sixth grade students explain how an author's point of view or purpose is communicated in a text.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

Seventh grade students examine how an author discerns his/her point of view or purpose from that of others.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Eighth grade students examine an author's method for recognizing and responding to conflicting evidence and viewpoints.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

After establishing what an author's purpose or point of view is in a text, students examine how the language is used effectively and consider any persuasive techniques the author might use to influence readers.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power and/or persuasiveness of the text.

Using a text that is rich with effective language, students should establish what the author's purpose is, and study how style contributes to the power and beauty of the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. With prompting and support, describe how the words and illustrations work together to provide information.

With assistance, kindergarten students describe how illustrations support a text.

Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

First grade students use illustrations and details to explain key ideas in a text.

Explain how specific images contribute to and clarify a text.

Second grade students explain how specific images add to the meaning of a text.

Use information gained from illustrations and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text.

Third grade students use both illustrations and words to demonstrate understanding of a text.

Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

Fourth grade students add the ability to interpret information orally or quantitatively.

Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question or to solve a problem efficiently.

Fifth grade students draw on multiple types of information as they answer questions and solve problems quickly and efficiently.

Integrate information presented in different media or formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

Sixth grade students integrate information presented through different media to develop a coherent understanding of a topic.

Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium's portrayal of the subject.

Seventh grade students compare and contrast different media versions of the text and analyze how the medium effects the portrayal of the subject matter.

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present a particular topic or idea.

Eighth grade students judge the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present specific topics.

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums, determining which details are emphasized in each account.

When examining several texts that share the same subject but use different vehicles or modes to communicate, students should be able to judge what details are emphasized in each account.

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

Students appraise and incorporate multiple sources of information including graphs, texts, illustrations, charts, and other forms of information in order to address a question or solve a problem.

8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Begins in grade 1. With guidance and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support ideas in a text.

First grade students identify the author's reasoning.

Identify the reasons an author gives to support ideas in a text.

Second grade students continue to identify the author's reasoning.

Describe how the author connects ideas between sentences and paragraphs to support specific points in a text.

Third grade students describe the ways reasons support specific points made by the author in the text.

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

Fourth grade students explain how an author uses evidence to support his/her points.

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

Fifth grade students match reasons and evidence with particular points made by the author of a text.

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Sixth grade students trace and evaluate arguments within text as they distinguish between claims that are valid and invalid.

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.

Seventh grade students expand this assessment of claims to determine whether or not sound reasoning is used to support claims and whether evidence is relevant and sufficient.

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Eighth grade students add the ability to recognize when irrelevant evidence is used.

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

Students evaluate whether the reasoning an author presents is logical/ legitimate and the evidence that is used is relevant to the argument and provides enough proof. They need to pinpoint any statements that are false and judge if any of the author's reasoning is misleading.

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. and/or British texts, including the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy.

Students describe and examine the thought processes in influential U.S. texts and apply the constitutional principles (checks and balances, limited government, separation of powers…), and use legal reasoning.

(1) Issue: What specifically is being debated?
(2) Rule: What legal rule governs this issue?
(3) Facts: What are the facts relevant to this rule?
(4) Analysis: Apply the rule to the facts.
(5) Conclusion: Having applied the rule to the facts, what is the outcome?

Students determine the bases, purposes, or foundations found in works of advocacy. (Advocacy is the act of influencing decision makers and promoting changes to laws and other government policies to advance the mission of a particular organization or group of people.)

9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.

With assistance, kindergarten students identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.

Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.

First grade students continue to identify similarities and differences between texts.

Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Second grade students compare and contrast key points of two texts.

Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Third grade students compare and contrast key details.

Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Fourth grade students integrate information and can write or speak about a subject knowledgeably.

Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Fifth grade students add the ability to integrate information from several texts.

Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another.

Sixth grade students compare and contrast two different authors' presentations of the same event.

Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

Seventh grade students analyze how two or more authors develop presentations differently through the evidence they choose to emphasize and how they interpret facts.

Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

Eighth grade students examine texts on the same topic that have conflicting information. They identify where facts or interpretations disagree.

Analyze influential documents of historical and literary significance, including how they address related themes and concepts.

Students evaluate influential U.S. documents, especially how they deal with similar themes and concepts.

Analyze foundational U.S. and/or British documents of historical and literary significance for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

Students examine and evaluate significant foundational U.S. documents from the seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century to consider their themes, purposes, and language features.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10 Read and understand complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently, connecting prior knowledge and experiences to text. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten students actively engage in group reading.

With prompting and support, read and understand informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1 for sustained periods of time.

With assistance, students read informational text appropriately complex for grade 1.

By the end of grade 2, read and understand informational texts within the 2-3 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, second grade students read proficiently various types of informational text for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 3, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 2-3 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Third grade students read independently and proficiently various types of informational text for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 4, read and understand informational texts within the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, fourth grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 5, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Fifth grade students read independently and proficiently various types informational text for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 6, read and understand informational texts within the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, sixth grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 7, read and understand informational texts within the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, seventh grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 8, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Eighth grade students read and comprehend various types of literary nonfiction independently at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 9, read and understand informational texts within the 9-10 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text. By the end of grade 10, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 9-10 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Support might be needed at the high end of the grade band.

By the end of grade 11, read and understand informational texts within the 11-12 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text. By the end of grade 12, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 11-12 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Students continue to read and comprehend grade 11-CCR literary nonfiction.

Reading: Literature
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12
Key Ideas and Details
1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

With assistance, kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

Second grade students answer specific questions to demonstrate understanding.

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

Third grade students add the ability to refer to the text explicitly to support their answers.

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fourth grade students continue to refer to text explicitly and now do so when drawing inferences.

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to quote accurately from the text to support their answers. “Quote accurately” may include using their own words.

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Sixth grade students provide evidence in the form of citations when analyzing what a text says and drawing inferences. To “cite” can mean both 1) to refer to and specify, as for support, proof, illustration, or confirmation and also 2) to include a short note recognizing the source of evidence.

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Seventh grade students cite more than one piece of textual evidence when analyzing a text.

Cite textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

When citing evidence, eighth grade students judge what is considered strong (convincing and effective) support.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Students provide evidence in the text that is strong and thorough (complete, detailed) to support their analysis.

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Students judge where an author purposely leaves events open-ended or vague or identifies where a text is inconclusive.

2 Determine central ideas (RI) or themes (RL) of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

With assistance, kindergarten students retell a story in their own words and remember key details.

Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

First grade students also demonstrate an understanding of the central message or lesson.

Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

Second grade students continue to retell stories and include fables and folktales from diverse cultures.

Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

Third grade students explain how key details communicate the message and myths are included.

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

Fourth grade students determine the central message as a “theme” and are able to determine the theme in stories, dramas, or poems.

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

Fifth grade students add the ability to determine how characters respond to challenges or topics in multiple genres.

Determine a theme of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Sixth grade students determine a text's central idea (the controlling idea that is specific to that text) and how it is expressed through specific details. Students should create a summary that is free of any opinions or judgments.

Determine a theme of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

Seventh grade students add the ability to analyze the theme or central idea as it develops over the course of a text.

Determine a theme of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

Eighth grade students expand the analysis of the text's theme to include its relationship to story elements.

Determine a theme of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students understand how key details can create and shape a theme or central idea.

Determine two or more themes of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

Students find more than one theme or central idea in a text. They understand the inter-relationship between multiple themes and recognize how this creates a richer understanding.

3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

With assistance, kindergarten students need to recognize and name elements in a story.

Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

First grade students use details to tell about elements in a story.

Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Second grade students build on understanding character development focusing on characters' reactions to what is taking place in a story.

Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

Third grade students are more specific in telling about characters. They must explain how the actions of the characters influence plot development.

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

Fourth grade students refer to details in the text to describe various story elements in depth.

Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

Fifth grade students refer to specific details in the text when finding the similarities and differences between two or more characters, settings or events.

Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

Sixth grade students describe characters' responses and changes as the plot develops and can explain the story or drama in sequential order.

Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact.

Seventh grade students examine the text to understand how elements of a story or drama work together.

Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Eighth grade students examine how specific lines of dialogue or events in a story or drama drive the action, disclose something about a character, or cause a decision to be made.

Analyze how complex characters develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

Students understand the role of complex characters in a text. They recognize the development of complex characters over the course of a text, explain their interactions with other characters, and tell how they contribute to plot or theme development.

Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama.

Students recognize how an author's choices, when developing a story, impact the story as a whole.

Craft and Structure
4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about words in a text that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

Kindergarten students answer as well as ask questions regarding new vocabulary.

Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

First grade students begin to name words and phrases that help contribute to the overall feeling of stories and poems.

Describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

Second grade students tell how words and phrases provide meaning to a story, poem, or song.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, identifying words that impact the meaning in a text.

Third grade students tell the meaning of words and phrases in a text, noting the differences between literal and nonliteral language.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including words that affect meaning and tone.

Fourth grade students expand their ability to determine meaning of words and phrases to those that allude to significant mythological characters.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, recognizing specific word choices that contribute to meaning and tone.

Fifth grade students add the ability to determine the meaning of figurative language (metaphors and similes).

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Sixth grade students analyze the impact of word choice on meaning and tone in texts and add the ability to determine the connotative meanings of words and phrases.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of rhymes and repetitions of sounds on meaning and tone in a specific line or section of a literary work.

Seventh grade students evaluate the influences of rhymes and other repetitive sounds on specific structures of a poem, story, or drama.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Eighth grade students add the ability to analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone by including analogies or allusions to other texts.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.

After determining the figurative and connotative meanings of words, students realize the significance of the author's word choice as a whole on the text's tone and overall understanding.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly engaging.

Students examine an author's craft as it relates to word choice, specifically considering multiple meanings of words and use language that is descriptive, creative, or original.

5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Recognize common types of texts.

Kindergarten students recognize stories, poems, and various forms of texts.

Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information.

First grade students explain how books that tell stories are different from books that provide information (literary and informational text).

Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story, the events unfold in the middle, and the ending concludes the action.

Second grade students explain how a story is structured — beginning and end.

Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

Third grade students look at text structure when writing and speaking about a text and focus on various parts and tell how they build upon one another.

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems and drama when writing or speaking about a text.

Fourth grade students continue to develop an understanding of text structure. They know the differences between various genres.

Explain how chapters, scenes, or stanzas provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

Fifth grade students explain how the parts of a particular genre fit together.

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

Sixth grade students examine specific text structures and how they add to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

Analyze how a drama's or poem's (or other literary genre's) form or structure contributes to its meaning.

Seventh grade students examine how the form of a poem or drama plays a role in determining its meaning.

Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

Eighth grade students find structural similarities and differences of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structures produce a particular style.

Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it, and manipulate time create effects such as mystery, tension, or surprise. .

Students consider how an author crafts the structure of a text to produce a particular effect.

Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to construct specific parts of a text contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its effect on the reader.

Students examine specific parts of a text to understand how an author structured and crafted that particular part, so that it would contribute meaning or artistic effect.

6 Assess how point of view, perspective, or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. With prompting and support, define the role of the author and illustrator in telling the story.

With assistance, kindergarten students name the author and illustrator in a story. They will understand the part each plays in telling a story. (The job of the author... The job of the illustrator...).

Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

First grade students name who is telling the story throughout the text.

Distinguish differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Second grade students describe how characters' points of view differ. As students read orally, they should read using different voices for different characters.

Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

Third grade students establish the point of view and tell how their own point of view is different from the narrator's or the characters'.

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Fourth grade students compare and contrast points of view.

Describe how a narrator's or speaker's point of view influences how events are described.

Fifth grade students explain how the narrator's point of view affects how events are described.

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Sixth grade students clarify how the author develops the point of view in a text.

Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the perspectives of different characters in a text.

Seventh grade students contrast the different points of view in a text (narrator and/or characters).

Analyze how differences in the perspectives of the characters and the audience or reader create such effects as suspense or humor.

Eighth grade students examine how different points of view in a text (character, audience, reader) produce particular effects.

Analyze a particular perspective or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

Students examine a particular point of view or cultural experience found in a work of world literature.

Analyze a case in which grasping perspective requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant.

When determining point of view, students recognize when an author says one thing but means another.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. With prompting and support, describe how the words and illustrations work together to tell a story.

With assistance, kindergarten students understand how pictures support a story.

Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

First grade students use pictures and details in a story to tell about story elements.

Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

Second grade students add the use of digital text to demonstrate understanding.

Explain how specific aspects of a text's illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story.

Third grade students explain more specifically how illustrations contribute to the text.

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

Fourth grade students make connections between the visual and oral versions of texts.

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or aesthetics of a text.

Fifth grade students analyze how visual and multimedia elements affect the text.

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they "see" and "hear" when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.

Sixth grade students compare and contrast the experiences of reading a text to viewing or listening to the same text.

Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium.

Seventh grade students analyze the effects of various media techniques when used to present a text.

Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

Eighth grade students critique how close a production aligns to the original text or script. They should examine and assess the artistic decisions that were made.

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.

Students compare two works that use different artistic mediums (painting, poetry, sculpture) but share a common subject.

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem, evaluating how each version interprets the source text.

Students examine many interpretations of a single work and determine how each venue interprets that text.

8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (not applicable to literature)
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9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

With assistance, kindergarten students compare and contrast characters' experiences within stories that they know.

Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

First grade students compare and contrast elements of stories that are new to them.

Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors or from different cultures.

Second grade students compare and contrast versions of the same story. The authors of the same story could be different or the story could be from two different cultures.

Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters.

Third grade students compare and contrast story elements from stories by the same author.

Compare and contrast the use of similar themes and topics and patterns of events in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Fourth grade students find patterns of events in stories and myths.

Compare and contrast stories in the same genre on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Fifth grade students compare and contrast stories in the same genre.

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Sixth grade students assess different forms of texts to discover how the authors dealt with similar themes and topics.

Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

Seventh grade students explore a fictional historical text to a similar factual historical text to discover how the authors used or altered history in their works.

Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works, including describing how the material is rendered new.

Eighth grade students consider how modern authors use similar elements found in traditional texts when developing their works.

Analyze how an author adopts or adapts source material in a specific work.

Students analyze how an author uses source material in crafting a text. Students discover the source the author alludes to and explains how that text was changed by the author.

Analyze how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics and compare the approaches the authors take.

This standard specifies the literature that should be studied at this level and includes requiring students to examine how authors from the same time period deal with a particular theme.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10 Read and understand complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently, connecting prior knowledge and experiences to text. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Actively engaged students are responsible for their own learning.

With prompting and support, read and understand literature of appropriate complexity for grade 1 for sustained periods of time.

With assistance, students read prose and poetry at the text complexity for grade 1. Prose is writing that is not poetry.

By the end of grade 2, read and understand literature within the 2-3 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, second grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 3, read and understand literature at the high end of the 2-3 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Third grade students read independently and proficiently various types of literature (including dramas) for the 2-3 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 4, read and understand literature within the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, fourth grade students read proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 5, read and understand literature at the high end of the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Fifth grade students read independently and proficiently various types of literature for the 4-5 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 6, read and understand literature within the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, sixth grade students read and comprehend various types of literature in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 7, read and understand literature within the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

With assistance as needed, seventh grade students read and comprehend various types of literature in the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 8, read and understand literature at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Eighth grade students read and comprehend various types of literature independently and proficiently at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band.

By the end of grade 9, read and understand literature within the 9-10 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text. By the end of grade 10, read and understand literature at the high end of the 9-10 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text. .

Support might be needed at the high end of the grade band.

By the end of grade 11, read and understand literature within the 11-12 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text. By the end of grade 12, read and understand literature at the high end of the 11-12 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

Students continue to read and comprehend grade 11-CCR literature.

Writing
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12
Text Types and Purposes
1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and/or peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

Kindergarten students' opinion writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to make a claim.

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide closure.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

First grade students write an opinion and give reasons for their thinking. They also provide a framework for their writing that includes an introduction and a sense of closure.

Write opinion piecesin which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

Second grade students provide more than one reason for their opinion and use linking words in their writing. They add a concluding statement or section.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
  3. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
  4. Use linking words and phrases to connect opinion and reasons.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task and purpose.

Third grade students write opinion pieces that support a point of view or make a claim. They also organize their writing to support a claim with reasons and connect ideas using linking phrases.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer's purpose.
  3. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  4. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fourth grade students add information (facts and details) to their opinion pieces to support a claim. They group like ideas together to develop an organizational framework for their writing.

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer's purpose.
  3. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  4. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fifth grade students become more sophisticated at building an organizational framework for their writing by developing a logical, ordered progression of reasons in their writing. They connect ideas using linking clauses.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  3. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Sixth grade students use relevant evidence and clear reasons to support claims when they write arguments. They are expected to use credible sources, demonstrate an understanding of the topic, and show the ability to clarify the relationships among claims. Students need to establish and maintain a formal style of writing throughout their argument.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  3. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Seventh grade students support claims by using accurate sources and add credibility to their logical arguments by introducing alternate claims. They use words, phrases, and clauses to generate consistency among claims.

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  3. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Eighth grade students add the ability to distinguish their claims from opposing or alternate claims.

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  3. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  7. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students write arguments that support an analysis of an important topic or text. Students use reasoning that not only is relevant but also logical and well-founded. They provide enough evidence to adequately support their claims. Students introduce a clear claim; show the relationships between claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; and show equitable treatment of claims and counterclaims. They use language to link sections of the text together, use an impartial tone, and align writing conventions specific to the discipline.

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  3. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  7. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students establish both knowledge and importance of the claim using the most pertinent evidence while being cognizant of the audience's values and possible biases. Students use varied language structure to tie the sections of the text together.

2 Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and/or peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

Kindergarten students' informative/explanatory writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to compose texts. They name a topic and can give some information about it.

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide closure.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

First grade students write informative/explanatory texts and add a sense of closure to their writing.

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

Second grade students provide an introduction and a concluding statement or section. They also use facts and definitions to develop points in their writing.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
  4. Use linking words and phrases to connect ideas within categories of information.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task and purpose.

Third grade students examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly using facts, definitions, and details. They know to supply illustrations as necessary. They also use linking words and phrases to group like ideas together.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting, illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  4. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fourth grade students present ideas clearly using concrete details, quotations, examples, and precise vocabulary. They use formatting (paragraphs, sections, text features). They know to supply multimedia as necessary. They also develop a conclusion that is related to the information presented.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting, illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  4. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  7. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fifth grade students make an observation, focus their writing, and present ideas in a logical manner. They link ideas across categories using clauses.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  4. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
  8. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Sixth grade students organize, select and analyze relevant content in order to write informative/explanatory texts. They use a variety of strategies to organize their ideas and include graphics to aid in comprehension. They write in a formal style using appropriate transitions and relevant facts.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  4. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  8. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Seventh grade students expand their organizational strategies to include clear topic introductions and previewing information. They also use transitions to create consistency among ideas.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  4. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  8. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Eighth grade students organize information into broader categories, choose their facts carefully, and use a variety of transitions to create cohesion and clarity.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
  4. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  8. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students write informative /explanatory papers that articulate complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately. Students organize information to make important connections and distinctions, use sufficient facts and extended definitions to develop a topic, and link major sections of a text with varied transitions. They use precise and discipline specific vocabulary, and maintain style and tone aligned to the conventions of the discipline.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
  4. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  8. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students organize information so that each new element builds on each other to create a unified whole. Students select the most significant facts to include in a thoroughly developed topic, use syntax to link sections of text, and include figurative language.

3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and with guidance and support, provide a reaction to what happened.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and/or peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

Kindergarten students' narrative writing includes drawing, dictating, and writing to represent a single event or several loosely linked events. They also provide a reaction to what happened.

Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal transition words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

First grade students recount two or more sequenced events and include some details about what happened. They use temporal words and provide a sense of closure.

Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal transitions words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
  1. With guidance and support from adults, organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

Second grade students recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events and include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  3. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
  4. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
  5. Provide a sense of closure.
  6. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task and purpose.

Third grade students write real or imagined events in an organized way (unfolding naturally) using effective descriptive details and clear event sequences. They introduce characters and/or use narration. They also use dialogue to develop the events or characters.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  3. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  4. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
  5. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  7. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fourth grade students orient the reader to their writing. They use a variety of transitional words, concrete words and phrases, and sensory details. They write a conclusion that connects to the narrated experiences or events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  4. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
  5. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  7. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Fifth grade students use pacing to develop experiences and events in their writing. They also use clauses to manage the sequence of events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, with consideration to task, purpose, and audience.

Sixth grade students write narratives that engage the reader by developing a context in which events will unfold logically throughout the text. When developing story elements, they use pacing and description as well as precise words and details.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Seventh grade students use sensory language that captures the action. They also develop conclusions that reflect the narrated events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  7. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Eighth grade students add the ability to use reflection as a narrative technique and show the relationship among experiences and events.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  7. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students write narratives with carefully selected details that engage the reader by including a problem, situation, or observation and one or more points of view. Students use techniques such as the use of multiple plot lines, variety in sequencing events, and selecting words that create a vivid picture of the setting and characters. They provide a conclusion that considers what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the story.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
  1. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  7. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

Students use a variety of techniques to create a particular tone and outcome. They craft the significance of a problem, observation, or situation.

Production and Distribution of Writing
4 Use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing, either in collaboration with peers or in a whole group setting.

With assistance, kindergarten students explore digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

With assistance, first grade students use digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

With assistance, second grade students continue to use digital tools (including collaborating with peers) to produce and publish writing.

With guidance and support from adults, use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing (using word processing skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

With assistance, third grade students use technology (keyboarding skills) to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

With some guidance and support from adults, use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of word processing skills.

Fourth grade students need less assistance from adults as they use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and interact and collaborate with others. Fourth grade students should show a command of keyboarding skills by typing a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

With some guidance and support from adults, use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of word processing skills.

Fifth grade students should show a command of keyboarding skills by typing a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

Use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient word processing skills.

Sixth grade students produce and publish writing using technology and in collaboration with others. They type at least three pages in a single sitting.

Use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing, link to and cite sources, and to interact and collaborate with others.

Seventh grade students add the ability to link and cite sources within their publications.

Use digital tools and resources to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Eighth grade students include the relationships between ideas and information in their publications.

Use digital tools and resources to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Students use technology as a tool to edit individual and shared writing products, and use it to link to additional information or to display writing.

Use digital tools and resources to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Students use technology to respond to feedback, including new arguments or information.

5 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Participate in shared investigation of grade appropriate topics and writing projects.

Kindergarten students work together to investigate topics and writing projects.

Participate in shared research and writing projects

First grade students work together to research and write.

Participate in shared research and writing projects.

Second grade students continue to work together to research and write.

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

Third grade students research a topic to learn more about it.

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Fourth grade students research varying aspects of a topic to learn more about it.

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Fifth grade students use several sources to research varying aspects of a topic to learn more about it.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the investigation when appropriate.

Sixth grade students use several sources to research a topic to answer questions about it.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

Seventh grade students use several sources to research a topic to answer questions about it and plan for future investigation related to the same topic.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Eighth grade students use several sources to research a topic to answer questions about it and plan for future investigation that narrows the focus of the topic.

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Students synthesize information from several sources to research a topic in order to answer questions or solve problems and plan for future investigation that may broaden or narrow the focus of the inquiry.

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Students synthesize information from several sources to research a topic in order to answer questions or solve problems and plan for future investigation that may broaden or narrow the focus of the inquiry.

6 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question

Kindergarten students use information to answer questions.

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

First grade students use information to answer questions.

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Second grade students use information to answer questions independently.

Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

Third grade students recall information from various sources, take notes, and sort evidence.

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

Fourth grade also provide a list of sources for evidence gathered.

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

Fifth grade students also summarize or paraphrase evidence gathered.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

Sixth grade students assess the credibility of sources that have been quoted or paraphrased, avoiding plagiarism and providing information about sources.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Seventh grade students find sources through effective searches and assess the credibility and accuracy of those sources, avoiding plagiarism and following rules to provide information about sources.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Eighth grade students continue to find sources through effective searches and assess the credibility and accuracy of those sources, avoiding plagiarism and following rules to provide information about sources.

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Students find authoritative sources through advanced, effective searches, assess the usefulness of those sources in answering the research question, and integrate the information selectively, avoiding plagiarism and following standards for citation.

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

Students find authoritative sources through advanced, effective searches, assess the usefulness of those sources in answering the research question, and integrate the information selectively, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source, while following standards for citation.

Language
Anchor standards Grade-level standards
Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12
Conventions of Standard English
1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the appropriate grade band grammar continuum.

Language Standards 1 and 2 were revised to include two continuums, one for grammar and one for conventions. The skills within each continuum are arranged by grade band rather than by grade to allow for multiple years of practice, differentiation, and scaffolding, as needed. In the lower grade of the band, the teacher is introducing and modeling the skill. In the higher grade of the band, students are applying the skill to more complex text, as they work toward mastery. A continuum guide is being developed and will be available January 2018.

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the K-1 grammar continuum.
  1. Subject/Verb Agreement
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences
  2. Nouns
    • Form frequently occurring nouns; form regular plural nouns (/s/ or /es/)
    • Use common, proper, & possessive nouns
  3. Verbs
    • Form frequently occurring verbs
    • Convey sense of time
  4. Adjectives
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives
  5. Conjunctions
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions
  6. Adverbs
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  7. Sentences
    • Produce and expand simple, compound, declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences
    • Understand and use question words
  8. Prepositions
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions
  9. Pronouns
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
  10. Determiners
    • Use determiners
  11. Commonly Confused Words
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  12. Interjections
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  13. Phrases and Clauses
    • (Begins in grade 4-5 band.)
  14. Usage
    • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the K-1 grammar continuum.
  1. Subject/Verb Agreement
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences
  2. Nouns
    • Form frequently occurring nouns; form regular plural nouns (/s/ or /es/)
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns
  3. Verbs
    • Form frequently occurring verbs
    • Convey sense of time
  4. Adjectives
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives
  5. Conjunctions
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions
  6. Adverbs
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  7. Sentences
    • Produce and expand simple, compound, declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences
    • Understand and use question words
  8. Prepositions
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions
  9. Pronouns
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
  10. Determiners
    • Use determiners
  11. Commonly Confused Words
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  12. Interjections
    • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
  13. Phrases and Clauses
    • (Begins in grade 4-5 band.)
  14. Usage
    • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 2-3 grammar continuum.
  1. Subject/Verb Agreement
    • Ensure subject/ verb agreement
  2. Nouns
    • Explain the function of nouns
    • Use collective nouns (such as group)
    • Form and use frequently occurring regular and irregular plural nouns
  3. Verbs
    • Explain the function of verbs
    • Form and use past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs
    • Form and use simple verb tenses
    • Form and use the perfect verb tenses
    • Convey sense of various times, sequences
    • Recognize inappropriate shifts in verb tense
  4. Adjectives
    • Explain the function of adjectives
    • Accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
  5. Conjunctions
    • Explain the function of conjunctions
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
  6. Adverbs
    • Accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
    • Explain the function of adverbs
    • Form and use comparative adverbs
  7. Sentences
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange simple and compound sentences
  8. Prepositions
    • Explain the function of prepositions
  9. Pronouns
    • Explain the function of pronouns
    • Continue to use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
    • Use reflexive pronouns
  10. Determiners
    • Correctly use a, an, and the
  11. Commonly Confused Words
    • Correctly use common homophones
  12. Interjections
    • Explain the function of and use interjections
  13. Phrases and Clauses
    • (Begins in grade 4-5 band.)
  14. Usage
    • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 2-3 grammar continuum.
  1. Subject/Verb Agreement
    • Ensure subject/ verb agreement
  2. Nouns
    • Explain the function of nouns
    • Use collective nouns (such as group)
    • Form and use frequently occurring regular and irregular plural nouns
  3. Verbs
    • Explain the function of verbs
    • Form and use past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs
    • Form and use simple verb tenses
    • Form and use the perfect verb tenses
    • Convey sense of various times, sequences
    • Recognize inappropriate shifts in verb tense
  4. Adjectives
    • Explain the function of adjectives
    • Accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
  5. Conjunctions
    • Explain the function of conjunctions
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
  6. Adverbs
    • Accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
    • Explain the function of adverbs
    • Form and use comparative adverbs
  7. Sentences
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange simple and compound sentences
  8. Prepositions
    • Explain the function of prepositions
  9. Pronouns
    • Explain the function of pronouns.
    • Continue to use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
    • Use reflexive pronouns
  10. Determiners
    • Correctly use a, an, and the
  11. Commonly Confused Words
    • Correctly use common homophones
  12. Interjections
    • Explain the function of and use interjections
  13. Phrases and Clauses
    • (Begins in grade 4-5 band.)
  14. Usage
    • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 4-5 grammar continuum.
  1. Subject/Verb Agreement
    • Continue to ensure subject/verb agreement
  2. Nouns
    • Use abstract nouns (such as courage)
    • Continue to use regular and irregular plural nouns
  3. Verbs
    • Form and use progressive verb tenses
    • Use modal auxiliaries (such as may or must)
    • Form and use the perfect verb tenses
    • Convey sense of various times, sequences, states, and conditions
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense
  4. Adjectives
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns
  5. Conjunctions
    • Continue to use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
    • Use correlative conjunctions (such as either/or)
  6. Adverbs
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs
    • Use relative adverbs
  7. Sentences
    • Produce complete sentences, while recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange simple, compound, and complex sentences
  8. Prepositions
    • Form and use prepositional phrases
  9. Pronouns
    • Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement
    • Use relative pronouns
  10. Determiners
    • Commonly Confused Words
      • Correctly use frequently confused words (such as to, two, too)
    • Interjections
      • Continue to use interjections
    • Phrases and Clauses
      • Explain the function of phrases and clauses
      • Recognize independent and dependent phrases and clauses
    • Usage
      • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 4-5 grammar continuum.
    1. Subject/Verb Agreement
      • Continue to ensure subject/verb agreement
    2. Nouns
      • Use abstract nouns (such as courage)
      • Continue to use regular and irregular plural nouns
    3. Verbs
      • Form and use progressive verb tenses
      • Use modal auxiliaries (such as may or must)
      • Form and use the perfect verb tenses
      • Convey sense of various times, sequences, states, and conditions
      • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense
    4. Adjectives
      • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and accurately choose which to use - adjective or adverb
      • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns
    5. Conjunctions
      • Continue to use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
      • Use correlative conjunctions (such as either/or)
    6. Adverbs
      • Form and use comparative and superlative adverbs
      • Use relative adverbs
    7. Sentences
      • Produce complete sentences, while recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences
      • Produce, expand, and rearrange simple, compound, and complex sentences
    8. Prepositions
      • Form and use prepositional phrases
    9. Pronouns
      • Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement
      • Use relative pronouns
    10. Determiners
      • Commonly Confused Words
        • Correctly use frequently confused words (such as to, two, too)
      • Interjections
        • Continue to use interjections
      • Phrases and Clauses
        • Explain the function of phrases and clauses
        • Recognize independent and dependent phrases and clauses
      • Usage
        • (Begins in grade 6-8 band.)
      Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 grammar continuum.
      1. Subject/Verb Agreement
        • Continue to ensure subject/verb agreement
      2. Nouns
        • Verbs
          • Explain the function of verbals (such as gerunds or participles)
          • Form and use verbs in active and passive voice
          • Form and use indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional moods
          • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in voice and mood
          • Form and use transitive/intransitive verbs
        • Adjectives
          • Form and use compound adjectives
        • Conjunctions
          • Adverbs
            • Use adverbs that modify adjectives
            • Use adverbs that modify adverbs
          • Sentences
            • Continue to produce complete sentences, while recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences
            • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas
          • Prepositions
            • Pronouns
              • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive)
              • Use intensive pronouns
              • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person
              • Recognize and correct vague pronouns
              • Continue to ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement
              • Recognize and apply the nominative case and objective case
            • Determiners
              • Commonly Confused Words
                • Continue to correctly use frequently confused words
              • Interjections
                • Phrases and Clauses
                  • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences
                  • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence and recognize/ correct misplaced and dangling modifiers
                  • Form and use indirect/direct objects
                • Usage
                  • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking
                  • Identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language
                Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 grammar continuum.
                1. Subject/Verb Agreement
                  • Continue to ensure subject/verb agreement
                2. Nouns
                  • Verbs
                    • Explain the function of verbals (such as gerunds or participles)
                    • Form and use verbs in active & passive voice
                    • Form and use indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional moods
                    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in voice and mood
                    • Form and use transitive/intransitive verbs
                  • Adjectives
                    • Form and use compound adjectives
                  • Conjunctions
                    • Adverbs
                      • Use adverbs that modify adjectives
                      • Use adverbs that modify adverbs
                    • Sentences
                      • Continue to produce complete sentences, while recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences
                      • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas
                    • Prepositions
                      • Pronouns
                        • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive)
                        • Use intensive pronouns
                        • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person
                        • Recognize and correct vague pronouns
                        • Continue to ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement
                        • Recognize and apply the nominative case and objective case
                      • Determiners
                        • Commonly Confused Words
                          • Continue to correctly use frequently confused words
                        • Interjections
                          • Phrases and Clauses
                            • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences
                            • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence and recognize/ correct misplaced and dangling modifiers
                            • Form and use indirect/direct objects
                          • Usage
                            • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking
                            • Identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language
                          Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 grammar continuum.
                          1. Subject/Verb Agreement
                            • Continue to ensure subject/verb agreement
                          2. Nouns
                            • Verbs
                              • Explain the function of verbals (such as gerunds or participles)
                              • Form and use verbs in active & passive voice
                              • Form and use indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional moods
                              • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in voice and mood
                              • Form and use transitive/intransitive verbs
                            • Adjectives
                              • Form and use compound adjectives
                            • Conjunctions
                              • Adverbs
                                • Use adverbs that modify adjectives
                                • Use adverbs that modify adverbs
                              • Sentences
                                • Continue to produce complete sentences, while recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-on sentences
                                • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas
                              • Prepositions
                                • Pronouns
                                  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive)
                                  • Use intensive pronouns
                                  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person
                                  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns
                                  • Continue to ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement
                                  • Recognize and apply the nominative case and objective case
                                • Determiners
                                  • Commonly Confused Words
                                    • Continue to correctly use frequently confused words
                                  • Interjections
                                    • Phrases and Clauses
                                      • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences
                                      • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence and recognize/ correct misplaced and dangling modifiers
                                      • Form and use indirect/direct objects
                                    • Usage
                                      • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking
                                      • Identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 9-12 grammar continuum.
                                    1. Subject/Verb Agreement
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    2. Nouns
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    3. Verbs
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    4. Adjectives
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    5. Conjunctions
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    6. Adverbs
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    7. Sentences
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    8. Prepositions
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    9. Pronouns
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    10. Determiners
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    11. Commonly Confused Words
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    12. Interjections
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    13. Phrases and Clauses
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    14. Usage
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 9-12 grammar continuum.
                                    1. Subject/Verb Agreement
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    2. Nouns
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    3. Verbs
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    4. Adjectives
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    5. Conjunctions
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    6. Adverbs
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    7. Sentences
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    8. Prepositions
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    9. Pronouns
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    10. Determiners
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    11. Commonly Confused Words
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    12. Interjections
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    13. Phrases and Clauses
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    14. Usage
                                      • Students apply grammar and usage skills to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the appropriate grade band conventions continuum.

                                    Language Standards 1 and 2 were revised to include two continuums, one for grammar and one for conventions. The skills within each continuum are arranged by grade band rather than by grade to allow for multiple years of practice, differentiation, and scaffolding, as needed. In the lower grade of the band, the teacher is introducing and modeling the skill. In the higher grade of the band, students are applying the skill to more complex text, as they work toward mastery. A continuum guide is being developed and will be available January 2018.

                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the K-1 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize the first word in a sentence
                                      • Capitalize the pronoun "I"
                                      • Capitalize dates and names of people
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Recognize end punctuation
                                      • Name end punctuation
                                      • Use end punctuation for sentences
                                      • Use commas in dates
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds
                                      • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships
                                      • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of phonemic awareness and spelling conventions
                                      • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring grade appropriate irregular words
                                    4. References
                                      • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the K-1 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize the first word in a sentence
                                      • Capitalize the pronoun “I”
                                      • Capitalize dates and names of people
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Recognize end punctuation
                                      • Name end punctuation
                                      • Use end punctuation for sentences
                                      • Use commas in dates
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds
                                      • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships
                                      • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of phonemic awareness and spelling conventions
                                      • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring grade appropriate irregular words
                                    4. References
                                      • (Begins in grade 2-3 band.)
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 2-3 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize holidays
                                      • Capitalize product names
                                      • Capitalize geographic names
                                      • Capitalize appropriate words in titles
                                      • Use correct capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use commas to separate single words in a series
                                      • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters
                                      • Use an apostrophe to form contractions
                                      • Use an apostrophe to form frequently occurring possessives
                                      • Use commas in addresses
                                      • Use commas in dialogue
                                      • Form and use possessives
                                      • Use quotation marks in dialogue
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Use conventional spelling for high frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words
                                      • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (such as word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, and meaningful word parts) when writing words
                                    4. References
                                      • Consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 2-3 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize holidays
                                      • Capitalize product names
                                      • Capitalize geographic names
                                      • Capitalize appropriate words in titles
                                      • Use correct capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use commas to separate single words in a series
                                      • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters
                                      • Use an apostrophe to form contractions
                                      • Use an apostrophe to form frequently occurring possessives
                                      • Use commas in addresses
                                      • Use commas in dialogue
                                      • Form and use possessives
                                      • Use quotation marks in dialogue
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Use conventional spelling for high frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words
                                      • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (such as word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, and meaningful word parts) when writing words
                                    4. References
                                      • Consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 4-5 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize appropriate words in titles
                                      • Continue to use correct capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use punctuation to separate items in a series
                                      • Continue to use commas in addresses
                                      • Continue to use commas in dialogue
                                      • Continue to use quotation marks in dialogue
                                      • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence
                                      • Use commas and quotations to mark direct speech and quotations from a text
                                      • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of a sentence
                                      • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no
                                      • Use a comma to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence
                                      • Use a comma to indicate a direct address
                                      • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Continue to use conventional spelling for high frequency words and other studied words
                                      • Continue to use conventional spelling for adding suffixes to base words
                                      • Continue to use spelling patterns and generalizations when writing words
                                      • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly
                                    4. References
                                      • Continue to consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 4-5 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Capitalize appropriate words in titles
                                      • Continue to use correct capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use punctuation to separate items in a series
                                      • Continue to use commas in addresses
                                      • Continue to use commas in dialogue
                                      • Continue to use quotation marks in dialogue
                                      • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence
                                      • Use commas and quotations to mark direct speech and quotations from a text
                                      • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of a sentence
                                      • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no
                                      • Use a comma to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence
                                      • Use a comma to indicate a direct address
                                      • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Continue to use conventional spelling for high frequency words and other studied words
                                      • Continue to use conventional spelling for adding suffixes to base words
                                      • Continue to use spelling patterns and generalizations when writing words
                                      • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly
                                    4. References
                                      • Continue to consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements
                                      • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives
                                      • Use punctuation to indicate a pause or break
                                      • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission
                                      • Use a semicolon to link two or more closely related independent clauses
                                      • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation
                                      • Apply hyphen conventions
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Consistently apply conventional rules to spell words correctly
                                    4. References
                                      • Continue to consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements
                                      • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives
                                      • Use punctuation to indicate a pause or break
                                      • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission
                                      • Use a semicolon to link two or more closely related independent clauses
                                      • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation
                                      • Apply hyphen conventions
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Consistently apply conventional rules to spell words correctly
                                    4. References
                                      • Continue to consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Use punctuation to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements
                                      • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives
                                      • Use punctuation to indicate a pause or break
                                      • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission
                                      • Use a semicolon to link two or more closely related independent clauses
                                      • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation
                                      • Apply hyphen conventions
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Consistently apply conventional rules to spell words correctly
                                    4. References
                                      • Continue to consult reference materials as needed to check and correct spellings
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 9-12 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    4. References
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 9-12 conventions continuum.
                                    1. Capitalization
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    2. Punctuation
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    3. Spelling
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    4. References
                                      • Students apply conventions to create a unique style and voice when writing or speaking with increasing sophistication and effect in grades 9-12. Skills taught in previous grades should be reinforced and expanded.
                                    Knowledge of Language
                                    3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. (begins in grade 2)
                                    (begins in grade 2)
                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

                                    Second grade students compare formal and informal language forms.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Choose words and phrases for effect.
                                    2. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.

                                    Third grade students choose words for effect and compare written and spoken Standard English.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
                                    2. Choose punctuation for effect.
                                    3. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English and situations where informal discourse is appropriate.

                                    Fourth grade students choose words and phrases and punctuation in order to accomplish differing effects. Also, they use formal and informal English based on a given context.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
                                    2. Compare and contrast the varieties of English used in stories, dramas, or poems.

                                    Fifth grade students use varying sentence patterns in order to impact meaning and style and compare and contrast varieties of English.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
                                    2. Maintain consistency in style and tone.

                                    Sixth grade students use varying sentence patterns as they maintain consistency in style and tone.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.

                                    Seventh grade students choose language that expresses ideas accurately while they minimize wordiness.

                                    Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
                                    1. Use verbs in the active or passive voice and in the conditional mood to achieve particular effects.

                                    Eighth grade students use a variety of verbs for effect.

                                    Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
                                    1. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
                                    2. Use parallel structure.

                                    Ninth and tenth grade students apply knowledge of language in order to make choices and to fully comprehend, while conforming to style manual guidelines when writing.

                                    Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
                                    1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

                                    Eleventh and twelfth grade students apply knowledge of language in order to make choices and to fully comprehend, while varying syntax for effect and conforming to style manual guidelines when writing.

                                    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
                                    4 Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, word relationships, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
                                    *The skills listed under each grade specific standard will appear in the clarification section of the standards.
                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content: context clues, word parts, and word relationships.

                                    Kindergarten students use context clues, word parts, and word relationships to determine the meaning of unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies: context clues, word parts, and word relationships.

                                    First grade students use context clues, word parts, and word relationships to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Second grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Third grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Fourth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Fifth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Sixth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Seventh grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Eighth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Ninth and tenth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.

                                    Eleventh and twelfth grade students use context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning, unknown word and phrases.

                                    5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings. With guidance and support from adults, explore nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Sort common objects into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
                                    2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
                                    3. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action by acting out the meanings.

                                    With assistance, kindergarten students explore word relationships. They explore different shades of the same verb, inflections, common concepts/objects, opposites, and how words are used in "real-life."

                                    With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Sort words into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
                                    2. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes.
                                    3. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner and adjectives differing in intensity by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

                                    With assistance, first grade students demonstrate understanding of figurative language. They sort and define words by category, and they distinguish shades of the same verb and adjectives by defining or acting them out.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs and closely related adjectives.

                                    Without assistance, second grade students distinguish different shades of the same verb, related verbs, and closely related adjectives.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context.
                                    2. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty.

                                    Third grade students distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings for words and phrases in context, and they also distinguish words that describe states of mind.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors in context.
                                    2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
                                    3. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

                                    Fourth grade students explain the meaning of simple similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, and proverbs. They also demonstrate understanding of relationships between words (synonyms and antonyms).

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
                                    2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

                                    Fifth grade students interpret figurative language and use the relationship between words to better understand each of the words.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figures of speech in context based on grade 6 reading and content.
                                    2. Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

                                    Sixth grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by interpreting figures of speech and distinguishing among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figures of speech in context based on grade 7 reading and content.
                                    2. Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

                                    Seventh grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by continuing to interpret figures of speech, using the relationships between words, and distinguishing among words with similar denotations.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figures of speech in context based on grade 8 reading and content.
                                    2. Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

                                    Eighth grade students demonstrate understanding of word relationships by continuing to interpret figures of speech, using the relationships between words, and distinguishing among words with similar denotations.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their role in the text based on grades 9-10 reading and content.
                                    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

                                    Students analyze the role(s) of figures of speech in a text and nuances in the meaning of words with similar meanings.

                                    Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
                                    1. Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their role in the text based on grades 11-12 reading and content.
                                    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

                                    Students continue to analyze the role(s) of figures of speech in a text and nuances in the meaning of words with similar meanings.

                                    6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression. Use words and phrases learned through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

                                    Kindergarten students use words and phrases acquired to respond to texts.

                                    Use words and phrases learned through conversations, reading, and being read to, including common conjunctions.

                                    First grade students include conjunctions in their responses.

                                    Use words and phrases learned through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe.

                                    Second grade students include adjectives and adverbs in their responses.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

                                    Third grade students respond with general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.

                                    Fourths grade students respond with language that includes precise actions, emotions, or states of being.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

                                    Fifth grade students, responses include language that signals contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; develop vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

                                    Sixth grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 6 vocabulary.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; develop vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

                                    Seventh grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 7 vocabulary.

                                    Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; develop vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

                                    Eighth grade students acquire and use general and domain-specific grade 8 vocabulary.

                                    Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in developing vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

                                    Students acquire and use academic and domain-specific words sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening appropriate to college and career level reading. Students demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary.

                                    Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in developing vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

                                    Students acquire and use academic and domain-specific words sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening appropriate to college and career level reading. Students demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary.

                                    Speaking & Listening
                                    Anchor standards Grade-level standards
                                    Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12
                                    Comprehension and Collaboration
                                    1
                                    Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others, ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

                                    Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
                                    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions.
                                    2. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges

                                    Kindergarten students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by following rules through multiple exchanges.

                                    Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
                                    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions.
                                    2. Build on others' talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
                                    3. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.

                                    First grade students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts and add the ability to build on others' talk and ask questions to clarify confusion.

                                    Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
                                    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions.
                                    2. Build on others' talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
                                    3. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

                                    Second grade students participate in collaborative discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts and can link their comments to the remarks of others. They also ask for clarification and further explanation when needed.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions.
                                    3. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
                                    4. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

                                    Third grade students effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also ask questions to check understanding and stay on topic and are able to explain their thinking to others based upon the discussion.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
                                    3. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
                                    4. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

                                    Fourth grade students continue to effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also respond to questions to clarify and contribute to the conversation and can review the key ideas discussed.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
                                    3. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
                                    4. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

                                    Fifth grade students continue to effectively participate in a range of discussions about grade-appropriate topics and texts by preparing for the discussion. They also elaborate on other's remarks and draw conclusions about the information discussed.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
                                    3. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
                                    4. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

                                    Sixth grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 6 topics. They refer to evidence under discussion; follow rules, set specific goals, and define roles; and understand multiple perspectives.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
                                    3. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
                                    4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.

                                    Seventh grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 7 topics. They follow their progression toward meeting goals and deadlines. They ask questions that warrant elaboration and refocus the topic of discussion and use new information to modify their own views.

                                    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
                                    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
                                    3. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
                                    4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.

                                    Eighth grade students continue to engage in collaborative discussions on grade 8 topics. They follow rules for decision-making and ask questions in order to connect to the ideas of others. They qualify or justify their own views through presented evidence.

                                    Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
                                    2. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
                                    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
                                    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

                                    Students start and participate in collaborative discussions around grades 9-10 texts and topics. During conversations, students express their ideas persuasively. They reference evidence from multiple texts and research to contribute to a collaborative conversation where critical ideas are exchanged. Students establish their own rules to guide discussion and stimulate conversation using questioning skills to help uncover the big ideas. They respond thoughtfully to diverse viewpoints and come to new understandings based on the evidence presented.

                                    Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
                                    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
                                    2. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
                                    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
                                    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

                                    Students engage in civil democratic discussions to ensure a wide range of perspectives on a topic of study are shared. They seek to clarify, verify, and challenge ideas to foster different and innovative perspectives. Students synthesize information presented on all sides of an issue and determine what additional evidence is required to deepen understanding or complete the task assigned.

                                    2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
                                    Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

                                    Kindergarten students ask and answer questions about key details to confirm understanding of text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

                                    Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

                                    First grade students continue to ask and answer questions about key details.

                                    Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

                                    Second grade students describe key details.

                                    Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

                                    Third grade students determine the main ideas and supporting details of information presented in diverse formats.

                                    Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

                                    Fourth grade students add the ability to paraphrase portions of a text presented in diverse formats.

                                    Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

                                    Fifth grade students summarize a text presented in diverse formats.

                                    Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

                                    Sixth grade students interpret information presented in diverse media formats and explain how the media contributes to the information presented.

                                    Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

                                    Seventh grade students examine main ideas and supporting details presented in various formats and explain how the ideas are used to clarify the information presented.

                                    Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats and evaluate the motives behind its presentation.

                                    Eighth grade students examine the purpose of presented information and the motives of the author.

                                    Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

                                    Students integrate information from multiple sources and evaluate whether the source is believable and accurate.

                                    Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

                                    Students make informed decisions and solve problems based on information collected, noting any variations in the data.

                                    3 Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
                                    Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

                                    Kindergarten students ask and answer questions when something is not understood.

                                    Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

                                    First grade students ask and answer questions about what a speaker says when something is not understood.

                                    Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

                                    Second grade students use questioning about what a speaker says to clarify comprehension and deepen understanding about a topic or issue.

                                    Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

                                    Third grade students add the ability to elaborate and offer details when asking and answering questions.

                                    Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.

                                    Fourth grade students identify a speaker's reasons and evidence used to support specific points.

                                    Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

                                    Fifth grade students summarize the points a speaker makes and explain the ways a speaker supports claims with evidence.

                                    Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

                                    Sixth grade students establish claims that are supported through reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

                                    Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

                                    Seventh grade students evaluate the accuracy of reasoning and the relevancy and adequacy of the evidence presented to support claims.

                                    Delineate a speaker's argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

                                    Eighth grade students add the ability to identify when irrelevant evidence is used.

                                    Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

                                    Students evaluate a speaker's point of view based on evidence and use of rhetoric. They identify statements that are false, exaggerated, or misleading.

                                    Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

                                    Students assess author's stance, premises, links between ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

                                    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
                                    4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
                                    Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

                                    Kindergarten students speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

                                    Produce complete sentences to describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

                                    First grade students describe people, places, things, and events using complete sentences clearly.

                                    Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent and complete sentences.

                                    Second grade students recount an experience with relevant facts and speak audibly in coherent sentences.

                                    Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly in complete sentences at an understandable pace.

                                    Third grade students add the ability to report on a topic and can speak at an understandable pace.

                                    Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; adjust speech as appropriate to formal and informal discourse.

                                    Fourth grade students present their story or experience in an organized manner when they speak and connect main ideas or themes to details.

                                    Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.

                                    Fifth grade students continue to report on a topic or text and add the abilities to present an opinion and use ideas that are logically sequenced.

                                    Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.

                                    Sixth grade students present claims and finding and use relevant descriptions, facts, and details to highlight main ideas or themes. They use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

                                    Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.

                                    Seventh grade students emphasize the prominent points in a coherent manner with pertinent examples when presenting claims and findings.

                                    Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.

                                    Eighth grade students provide relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details when presenting claims and finding.

                                    Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

                                    Students communicate information and supporting evidence so that an audience can follow the line of reasoning. Students ensure that the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to the purpose, audience, and task.

                                    Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

                                    Students communicate a clear, unmistakable point of view and address alternative or opposing points of view.

                                    5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
                                    Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

                                    Kindergarten students add drawings or visual displays to presentations or descriptions.

                                    Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

                                    First grades students continue to add drawings and visual displays and use them to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

                                    Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

                                    Second grade students add the ability to create audio recording of stories or poems.

                                    Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

                                    Third grade students' audio recordings are engaging and their recorded oral reading is fluid and at an understandable pace. They also use visual displays to emphasize certain facts or details.

                                    Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

                                    Fourth grade students add recordings and visual displays to presentations to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

                                    Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

                                    Fifth grade students continue to enhance the development of main ideas or themes in presentations and include multimedia components.

                                    Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

                                    Sixth grade students continue to include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

                                    Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.

                                    Seventh grade students use multimedia components and visual displays to clarify claims, findings, and prominent points.

                                    Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

                                    Eighth grade students integrate multimedia and visual displays to strengthen claims and evidence and add interest to the presentation.

                                    Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

                                    Students strategically and purposefully choose digital media platforms to enhance audience understanding of findings and reasoning.

                                    Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

                                    Students strategically and purposefully choose digital media platforms to enhance audience understanding of findings and reasoning.